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The Honey Phenomenon Summary



The Honey Phenomenon Summary avoided excessive sunlight, which would prevent reliable measurement by The Honey Phenomenon Summary of nest regions. The Honey Phenomenon Summary crystallized honey was mixed with flour or other fillers, hiding the The Honey Phenomenon Summary from Learning A New Language: Challenges Immigrants Face until the honey was liquefied. Archived from the original PDF on The Honey Phenomenon Summary December There is no evidence that honey is beneficial for treating cancer[] although honey may be useful for controlling side effects of radiation therapy or The Honey Phenomenon Summary used to treat cancer. And we've compiled the The Honey Phenomenon Summary best The Honey Phenomenon Summary research, The Honey Phenomenon Summary and remedies into a single book. DZG International Journal of Computer Vision.

The Honey Bee Documentary

Longer exposure times will produce motion blur during fast movements as occur during shimmering. Varying illumination at the nest site was compensated for by locally applied algorithms such as normalized similarity measures. We avoided excessive sunlight, which would prevent reliable measurement by overexposing of nest regions. To satisfy our needs in terms of accuracy and measurement time, two frame-synchronized cameras see specifications in Additional File 5 , Table S1 with a resolution of 4 Mpx were used, with fixed lenses without motorized zoom, focus or iris to provide calibration stability, and with CMOS image sensors that provide flexible capturing of images of different size at different frame rates ranging from 60 to more than fps.

Lastly, one of the main problems was the enormous data rate produced by the cameras during the experiments. Due to the limitation of electric power in the field during our expedition, it was not possible to use hard disks to capture the images in parallel. Existing optical tracking methods [ 36 , 37 ] mostly record single views e. These single-view methods are inappropriate for mass phenomena such as shimmering in Giant honeybees, where the precise positional 3D coordinates of individual agents need to be known independently of the global motion.

We chose to use 3D stereoscopic imaging, which allows motion analysis of densely packed agents in all directions of space. For this, we developed a system with stabilized tracking performance and resolved ambiguities, which identifies the 3D movements of hundreds of agents simultaneously. So far, shimmering has been documented on traditional film [ 5 , 38 ] in conjunction with classical image analysis, providing only 2D projections of individual bees participating in a 3D process.

Laser Doppler vibrometry LDV [ 39 ] can be useful for some applications, as it also facilitates 3D information. However, it has the disadvantage of delivering data of only one single agent bee over time, and can only pick up transient changes as it is limited by high-pass filter effects. Here, the stereo tracking method has been modified to measure local, comparably small movements of hundreds of densely packed agents simultaneously, in a flat, but nevertheless three-dimensional stratum. The method is applicable not only to insect clusters such as Giant honeybee nests, but also to processes where positional changes over time have to be monitored on the surface of a stratum of agents with high packing density such as the growth of plants or cells in 3D, or for displaying deformations of any type of textured surface.

For the application of stereoscopic imaging to monitor the dynamics of flocks of birds or fish schools, the methodological approach, in particular the tracking rules, must be adapted. For the shimmering behaviour of Giant honeybees, the described stereoscopic method produced data that provide behavioural details that could not have been measured by other techniques. It provided evidence for a series of potential mechanoceptive cues perceived by hundreds of surface bees on arrival of a shimmering wave. These "pre-trigger" z-motions of the agents are apparently caused by the abdomen-flipping neighbours.

Although small, such passive motions may enable the surface bees to estimate strength and spreading direction of an oncoming wave, and may function to trigger their active participation in shimmering. This response to the wave front is complex: first, the bodies were lifted upwards and pressed towards the comb, and also shifted towards the spreading wave front. Thereafter, the actively shimmering, abdomen-lifting agents pull the subsurface layers massively away from the comb. We propose that the resulting biphasic time course of the z-motion is a subtle colony-intrinsic signal [ 13 , 16 , 35 ] that provides mechanoceptive information about the momentary defensive state of the colony regarding temporal, spatial and directional patterns.

The addressees of such signals are those colony members that are positioned in the subsurface layers and inactive in shimmering, and that are excluded from receiving visual cues. Hence, 3D analysis of singular aspects of shimmering, such as the thorax positions of surface bees, enhances the understanding of the mechanical basis of abdominal flipping at the single bee level, and of the sensory basis for colony-intrinsic information involved in the spreading of shimmering waves.

On the individual bee level, the stereoscopic method enabled a comparison of the mechanics of abdominal flipping with that of a torsion pendulum. On the colony level, it allowed an assessment of the mechanic basics of shimmering to explore potential cues for colony-intrinsic communication. In our example, the wave arrived from the right side and drew the agents against the spreading direction. The x-motions of the agents detected can be plausibly explained by the mechanical principle of shear forces tangential to the individual agents. This is analogous to wind waves that propagate along the interface between water and air [ 31 — 33 ]; as the wind blows, pressure and friction forces perturb the equilibrium of the water surface, producing waves in which the moving paths of particles near the water surface form circles regarding monochromatic, linear, and plane waves in deep water [ 31 — 33 ].

Wind waves are therefore a combination of longitudinal back and forth and transverse up and down motions [ 23 , 32 , 33 ]. The positive x-motions of agents in horizontally spreading shimmering waves are supposed to correspond to the longitudinal moving of water particles [ 23 , 32 , 33 ] when directed "backwards". However, the analogy of shimmering waves with wind waves is limited for at least two reasons.

First, wind waves are generated [ 33 ] by energy transferred onto the water whereas shimmering is produced by the "active" agents in the bee curtain themselves. Second, in wind waves the restoring force is gravity [ 33 ], but in shimmering waves it is the concerted muscular activity of the bees in the layers of the bee curtain acting rectangular to gravity. The positive z-motion in shimmering denotes that abdominal flipping has recruited energy into the previously quiescent parts of the bee curtain, pulling its elastic mass away from the comb with successive damped oscillations Figure 5e ; see Additional File 2 , Movie S2 and Additional Files 9 , 10 and 11 , Movies S6, S7 and S8. This finding questions the analogy to Mexican waves [ 15 ] in football stadiums: Although both shimmering and Mexican waves are generated by the energy of the participating agents, the audience in football stadiums does not lift the ground into the air, whereas the wave front during the shimmering process pushes the surface of the bee curtain to the outside direction.

So far, stereo imaging has been applied to remote sensing [ 40 ], close-range photogrammetry [ 41 ], material sciences [ 42 , 43 ], medicine [ 44 , 45 ] and tissue mechanics [ 46 ]. Although this method can be scaled to a multitude of measurement ranges and corresponding accuracy specifications, to date 3D stereoscopic imaging has not been used for ethological purposes, particularly not for the descriptions of 3D motions of densely packed agents. We propose that it is a valuable tool to study collective behaviours in Giant honeybee colonies, but also, subject to additional adaptations of the method, for swarm behaviours in other insects [ 47 , 48 ], fish [ 49 , 50 ] and birds [ 51 — 54 ] and for special aspects of escape panic in humans [ 55 ].

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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Kastberger G, Weihmann F, Hoetzl T: Complex social waves of Giant honeybees provoked by a dummy wasp support the special-agent hypothesis. ACM Comput Surv. DZG Annual Meeting. Kraus K: Photogrammetry. Geometry from images and laser scans. Stampfl J, Scherer S, Gruber M, Kolednik O: Reconstruction of surface topographies by scanning electron microscopy for application in fracture research. Applied Physics A. Microchimica Acta. Franks NR, Deneubourg JL: Self-organizing nest construction in ants: individual worker behaviour and the nest's dynamics. Animal Behaviour. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Journal of Insect Behavior. Computer Graphics.

Scientific American. Terborgh J: "Mixed flocks and polyspecific associations: Costs and benefits of mixed groups to birds and monkeys". American Journal of Primatology. Letter in Nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Download references. We thank Dr. Madhusudan Man Singh from the Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal and three anonymous referees for comments that helped improving the manuscript. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Conceived and designed the experiments: GK. Co-editing: HB. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Additional file Part of the experimental Giant honeybee nest cf. The left camera image displays the wave episode w 2 as shown in Additional File 2 , Movie S2 cf. Figure 6 , 7 and 8. Matched and triangulated agents were marked with rounded rectangles showing the identification number. The colours used for coding the z-position refer to 14 steps of towards-comb direction blue shades from white to dark blue and off-comb direction red shades from white to dark red.

This film shows the positional information for all agents cf. Figure 6a b. Note that the waves cause residual motions of the curtain away from the comb for two seconds as displayed in Figure 6e for agent Numbers refer to frame and time in ms information 0. The stereo imaging setup consisted of two global-shutter CMOS cameras, delivering 4 Mpx gray-scale images at a frame rate of 60 Hz. The images were recorded and stored by a battery-powered industrial PC. PDF 6 KB. Additional file 7: Stereo matching: the correspondence problem described as a discrete energy minimization task. Detailed description of the algorithm for stereo matching which allows automated identification of corresponding individuals in a pair of stereo images. The problem is challenging because of the inherent similarity of the colony members addressed as agent bees.

The problem was formulated as a discrete energy minimization task. PDF 50 KB. Additional file 8: Stereo matching by identifying the minimum cut through a reduced graph. Each segmented bee in the left image was assigned a chain of M disparity slots in the right image, according to equation 9. Each node contains at the most one bee in the right image, which lies in the respective disparity interval equation In this example, the red nodes contain a bee, whereas the white nodes are empty. Start and end of each chain are connected from a source to a sink node, respectively. Links in the graph black and blue lines are pairwise connections between nodes, and are assigned capacity values Ct 0 p , Ct p,i and Cn p,q,i , according to equations 11 ,13 and Cutting of a t-link is equivalent to selecting the bee above the cut as the correct correspondence.

The cut that completely separates source from sink a special case is illustrated by the dashed red line has the smallest sum of cut link capacities; it is called minimum cut [ 28 ], and results in an optimal assignment of correspondences. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and Permissions. Kastberger, G. Stereoscopic motion analysis in densely packed clusters: 3D analysis of the shimmering behaviour in Giant honey bees. Front Zool 8, 3 Download citation.

Received : 23 October Accepted : 08 February Published : 08 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar and honeydew for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. By contriving for honey bee swarms to nest in human-made hives , people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey.

In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are:. Leaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus honey stomach or crop , which lies just dorsal to its food stomach. The forager bees then return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees then use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles repeatedly until it is partially digested. The bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation.

The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality. Some wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica found in South and Central America, are known to feed on nectar and produce honey. Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor , consume honey, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies or from domesticated beehives. On average, a hive will produce about 29 kilograms 65 lb of honey per year.

To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers typically pacify the bees using a bee smoker. The smoke triggers a feeding instinct an attempt to save the resources of the hive from a possible fire , making them less aggressive, and obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from it either by crushing or by using a honey extractor. The honey is then usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris.

Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were often sacrificed to conduct the harvest. The harvester would take all the available honey and replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, [ citation needed ] either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar often in the form of a "candyboard". The amount of food necessary to survive the winter depends on the variety of bees and on the length and severity of local winters.

Many animal species are attracted to wild or domestic sources of honey. Because of its composition and chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage, and is easily assimilated even after long preservation. Honey, and objects immersed in honey, have been preserved for centuries. In its cured state, honey has a sufficiently high sugar content to inhibit fermentation. If exposed to moist air, its hydrophilic properties pull moisture into the honey, eventually diluting it to the point that fermentation can begin. The long shelf life of honey is attributed to an enzyme found in the stomach of bees. The bees mix glucose oxidase with expelled nectar they previously consumed, creating two byproducts — gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide , which are partially responsible for honey acidity and suppression of bacterial growth.

Honey is sometimes adulterated by the addition of other sugars, syrups, or compounds to change its flavor or viscosity, reduce cost, or increase the fructose content to stave off crystallization. Adulteration of honey has been practiced since ancient times, when honey was sometimes blended with plant syrups such as maple , birch , or sorghum and sold to customers as pure honey. Sometimes crystallized honey was mixed with flour or other fillers, hiding the adulteration from buyers until the honey was liquefied. In modern times the most common adulterant became clear, almost-flavorless corn syrup; the adulterated mixture can be very difficult to distinguish from pure honey. According to the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations, any product labeled as "honey" or "pure honey" must be a wholly natural product, although labeling laws differ between countries.

Isotope ratio mass spectrometry can be used to detect addition of corn syrup and cane sugar by the carbon isotopic signature. Addition of sugars originating from corn or sugar cane C4 plants , unlike the plants used by bees, and also sugar beet , which are predominantly C3 plants skews the isotopic ratio of sugars present in honey, [36] but does not influence the isotopic ratio of proteins.

In an unadulterated honey, the carbon isotopic ratios of sugars and proteins should match. In , global production of honey was 1. Over its history as a food, [10] the main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, desserts, as a spread on bread, as an addition to various beverages such as tea, and as a sweetener in some commercial beverages. Due to its energy density, honey is an important food for virtually all hunter-gatherer cultures in warm climates, with the Hadza people ranking honey as their favorite food. Possibly the world's oldest fermented beverage, dating from 9, years ago, [41] mead "honey wine" is the alcoholic product made by adding yeast to honey-water must and fermenting it for weeks or months. Mead varieties include drinks called metheglin with spices or herbs , melomel with fruit juices, such as grape, specifically called pyment , hippocras with cinnamon , and sack mead high concentration of honey , [43] many of which have been developed as commercial products numbering in the hundreds in the United States.

The physical properties of honey vary, depending on water content, the type of flora used to produce it pasturage , temperature, and the proportion of the specific sugars it contains. Fresh honey is a supersaturated liquid, containing more sugar than the water can typically dissolve at ambient temperatures. At room temperature, honey is a supercooled liquid, in which the glucose precipitates into solid granules.

This forms a semisolid solution of precipitated glucose crystals in a solution of fructose and other ingredients. The density of honey typically ranges between 1. Below this temperature, honey can be either in a metastable state, meaning that it will not crystallize until a seed crystal is added, or, more often, it is in a "labile" state, being saturated with enough sugars to crystallize spontaneously. Honeys that are supersaturated with a very high percentage of glucose, such as brassica honey, crystallize almost immediately after harvesting, while honeys with a low percentage of glucose, such as chestnut or tupelo honey, do not crystallize. Some types of honey may produce few but very large crystals, while others produce many small crystals.

Crystallization is also affected by water content, because a high percentage of water inhibits crystallization, as does a high dextrin content. Crystal nuclei seeds tend to form more readily if the honey is disturbed, by stirring, shaking, or agitating, rather than if left at rest. Therefore, larger but fewer crystals tend to form at higher temperatures, while smaller but more-numerous crystals usually form at lower temperatures. Honey is a supercooled liquid when stored below its melting point, as is normal. At very low temperatures, honey does not freeze solid; rather its viscosity increases.

Like most viscous liquids , the honey becomes thick and sluggish with decreasing temperature. Below this temperature, honey enters a glassy state and becomes an amorphous solid noncrystalline. The viscosity of honey is affected greatly by both temperature and water content. The higher the water percentage, the more easily honey flows. Above its melting point, however, water has little effect on viscosity. Aside from water content, the composition of most types of honey also has little effect on viscosity. Most types of honey are Newtonian liquids , but a few types have non-Newtonian viscous properties. Honeys from heather or manuka display thixotropic properties. These types of honey enter a gel-like state when motionless, but liquefy when stirred.

Because honey contains electrolytes , in the form of acids and minerals, it exhibits varying degrees of electrical conductivity. Measurements of the electrical conductivity are used to determine the quality of honey in terms of ash content. The effect honey has on light is useful for determining the type and quality. Variations in its water content alter its refractive index. Water content can easily be measured with a refractometer.

Typically, the refractive index for honey ranges from 1. Honey also has an effect on polarized light , in that it rotates the polarization plane. The fructose gives a negative rotation, while the glucose gives a positive one. The overall rotation can be used to measure the ratio of the mixture. Honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, a phenomenon called hygroscopy. The amount of water the honey absorbs is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. Honey tends to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars allow on their own, which may be due to other ingredients it contains. Fermentation of honey usually occurs after crystallization, because without the glucose, the liquid portion of the honey primarily consists of a concentrated mixture of fructose, acids, and water, providing the yeast with enough of an increase in the water percentage for growth.

Like all sugar compounds, honey caramelizes if heated sufficiently, becoming darker in color, and eventually burns. However, honey contains fructose, which caramelizes at lower temperatures than glucose. Honey also contains acids, which act as catalysts for caramelization. The specific types of acids and their amounts play a primary role in determining the exact temperature. The amino acids form darkened compounds called melanoidins , during a Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, taking from a few to several months to show visible darkening, but speeds up dramatically with increasing temperatures.

However, the reaction can also be slowed by storing the honey at colder temperatures. Unlike many other liquids, honey has very poor thermal conductivity of 0. However, honey takes substantially longer to liquefy when just above the melting point than at elevated temperatures. The average pH of honey is 3. However, the different types and their amounts vary considerably, depending on the type of honey. These acids may be aromatic or aliphatic nonaromatic. The aliphatic acids contribute greatly to the flavor of honey by interacting with the flavors of other ingredients.

Organic acids comprise most of the acids in honey, accounting for 0. Individual honeys from different plant sources contain over volatile organic compounds VOCs , which play a primary role in determining honey flavors and aromas. VOCs are primarily introduced into the honey from the nectar, where they are excreted by the flowers imparting individual scents. VOCs can also be introduced from the bodies of the bees, be produced by the enzymatic actions of digestion, or from chemical reactions that occur between different substances within the honey during storage, and therefore may change, increase, or decrease over long periods of time.

Honey is classified by its floral source, and divisions are made according to the packaging and processing used. Regional honeys are also identified. In the US, honey is also graded on its color and optical density by USDA standards, graded on the Pfund scale, which ranges from 0 for "water white" honey to more than for "dark amber" honey. Generally, honey is classified by the floral source of the nectar from which it was made. Honeys can be from specific types of flower nectars or can be blended after collection.

The pollen in honey is traceable to floral source and therefore region of origin. The rheological and melissopalynological properties of honey can be used to identify the major plant nectar source used in its production. Most commercially available honey is a blend [72] of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density, or geographic origin. Polyfloral honey, also known as wildflower honey, [74] is derived from the nectar of many types of flowers. Monofloral honey is made primarily from the nectar of one type of flower. Monofloral honeys have distinctive flavors and colors because of differences between their principal nectar sources.

In practice a small proportion of any monofloral honey will be from other flower types. Typical examples of North American monofloral honeys are clover , orange blossom , sage, tupelo , buckwheat , fireweed , mesquite , sourwood , [77] cherry , and blueberry. Some typical European examples include thyme , thistle , heather , acacia , dandelion , sunflower , lavender , honeysuckle , and varieties from lime and chestnut trees. Egypt , examples include clover, cotton , and citrus mainly orange blossoms.

Instead of taking nectar, bees can take honeydew , the sweet secretions of aphids or other plant-sap-sucking insects. Honeydew honey is very dark brown, with a rich fragrance of stewed fruit or fig jam, and is not as sweet as nectar honeys. The production of honeydew honey has some complications and dangers. This honey has a much larger proportion of indigestibles than light floral honeys, thus causing dysentery to the bees, [80] resulting in the death of colonies in areas with cold winters. Good beekeeping management requires the removal of honeydew prior to winter in colder areas. Bees collecting this resource also have to be fed protein supplements, as honeydew lacks the protein-rich pollen accompaniment gathered from flowers.

Honeydew honey is sometimes called "myelate". Generally, honey is bottled in its familiar liquid form, but it is sold in other forms, and can be subjected to a variety of processing methods. Countries have differing standards for grading honey. USDA offers inspection and grading "as on-line in-plant or lot inspection Honey is also classified by color, though it is not a factor in the grading scale.

India certifies honey grades based on additional factors, such as the Fiehe's test, and other empirical measurements. High-quality honey can be distinguished by fragrance, taste, and consistency. The honey, when poured, should form small, temporary layers that disappear fairly quickly, indicating high viscosity. In jars, fresh honey should appear as a pure, consistent fluid, and should not set in layers. Within a few weeks to a few months of extraction, many varieties of honey crystallize into a cream-colored solid. Some varieties of honey, including tupelo, acacia, and sage, crystallize less regularly.

Overheating is indicated by change in enzyme levels, for instance, diastase activity, which can be determined with the Schade or the Phadebas methods. A fluffy film on the surface of the honey like a white foam , or marble-colored or white-spotted crystallization on a container's sides, is formed by air bubbles trapped during the bottling process. A Italian study determined that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between different honey types, and can be used to pinpoint the area where it was produced.

Researchers were able to identify differences in acacia and polyfloral honeys by the differing proportions of fructose and sucrose, as well as differing levels of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This ability allows greater ease of selecting compatible stocks. One hundred grams of honey provides about 1, kJ kcal of energy with no significant amounts of essential nutrients. One study found that mixed floral honey from several United States regions typically contains the following: []. A NMR spectroscopy study of 20 different honeys from Germany found that their sugar contents comprised:. This NMR method was not able to quantify maltose, galactose , and the other minor sugars as compared to fructose and glucose.

Honey is a popular folk treatment for burns and other skin injuries. Preliminary evidence suggests that it aids in the healing of partial thickness burns 4—5 days faster than other dressings, and moderate evidence suggests that post-operative infections treated with honey heal faster and with fewer adverse events than with antiseptic and gauze. Honey has long been used as a topical antibiotic by practitioners of traditional and herbal medicine. For chronic and acute coughs, a Cochrane review found no strong evidence for or against the use of honey. The UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency recommends avoiding giving over-the-counter cough and common cold medication to children under six, and suggests "a homemade remedy containing honey and lemon is likely to be just as useful and safer to take", but warns that honey should not be given to babies because of the risk of infant botulism.

The film approvingly contrasts Mr. But the film goes overboard with cartoonish slow-motion footage of bees in flight. The documentary begins on a sentimental note as Mr. The process of pollination by bees attracted to the fragrance of blossoms is described in romantic words and images. A farmer looks on as a pesticide is sprayed and appears to disable a bee without killing it.

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