✯✯✯ What Is Skinners Theory

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What Is Skinners Theory



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B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning (Full video)

The ideas of John B. Watson dominated this school of thought early on. Watson focused on the principles of classical conditioning , once famously suggesting that he could take any person regardless of their background and train them to be anything he chose. Early behaviorists focused their interests on associative learning. Skinner was more interested in how the consequences of people's actions influenced their behavior.

Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences. His theory was heavily influenced by the work of psychologist Edward Thorndike , who had proposed what he called the law of effect. Operant conditioning relies on a fairly simple premise: Actions that are followed by reinforcement will be strengthened and more likely to occur again in the future. If you tell a funny story in class and everybody laughs, you will probably be more likely to tell that story again in the future. If you raise your hand to ask a question and your teacher praises your polite behavior, you will be more likely to raise your hand the next time you have a question or comment.

Because the behavior was followed by reinforcement, or a desirable outcome, the preceding action is strengthened. Conversely, actions that result in punishment or undesirable consequences will be weakened and less likely to occur again in the future. If you tell the same story again in another class but nobody laughs this time, you will be less likely to repeat the story again in the future. If you shout out an answer in class and your teacher scolds you, then you might be less likely to interrupt the class again. Skinner distinguished between two different types of behaviors. While classical conditioning could account for respondent behaviors, Skinner realized that it could not account for a great deal of learning.

Instead, Skinner suggested that operant conditioning held far greater importance. Skinner invented different devices during his boyhood and he put these skills to work during his studies on operant conditioning. He created a device known as an operant conditioning chamber, often referred to today as a Skinner box. The chamber could hold a small animal, such as a rat or pigeon. The box also contained a bar or key that the animal could press in order to receive a reward.

In order to track responses, Skinner also developed a device known as a cumulative recorder. The device recorded responses as an upward movement of a line so that response rates could be read by looking at the slope of the line. There are several key concepts in operant conditioning. Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases. Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment. In both of these cases, the behavior decreases. Although each of them has a different effect on the behavior of the organism, they can be grouped into three types: those that do not provoke changes in behavior, those that increase the probability that they will occur again in the future, and those that they diminish.

Neutral operators are all the consequences of an action that neither increase nor diminish the probability that it will happen again in the future. They are the least common of all types of responses: in general, very few operators are totally neutral. An example of a neutral operant would be the following. If a student comes out to show a job in front of his class, and does not receive a warm response applause, congratulations I work in public.

As we already know, a reinforcement is an operant that increases the probability that a behavior will happen again in the future. However, what does it mean that a reinforcement is positive? The label of"positive", both for reinforcements and for punishments, has nothing to do with whether the response is good or bad. On the contrary, an operant is considered positive if something is given to the organism, and as negative if something is taken away from it. Therefore, a positive reinforcement is an operant in which the organism receives something that makes the repetition of the awarded behavior in the future more likely. The classic example is this: if a rat presses a lever and receives food, it will be more likely to press it again in the future. We have already seen that"reinforcement"means that the probability of a behavior in the future increases, and"negative", that something is eliminated in response to the organism.

That is to say, a negative reinforcement would be an operant in which something unpleasant is eliminated for the animal, which makes the probability of the behavior re-occurring increases. An example in which it is clearly seen how this type of reinforcement works is with the behavior of scratching. Skinner and his associates. It states that individual's behavior is a function of its consequences.

In the 's, B. Skinner developed the concept of operant conditioning. He put pigeons and rats in Skinner boxes to study how he could modify their behavior using rewards and punishments. His pigeons pecked at buttons in search of food. Examples of Positive Reinforcement Homework Completion. Cleaning Room. Incentives and Bonuses. Discounts and Benefits. Positive Discipline is a discipline that focuses on the positive points of behavior, based on the idea that there are no bad People, just good and bad behaviors.

Positive discipline is encouraging. Negative discipline focuses on what People are doing wrong.

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