✍️✍️✍️ Internist Reflection Essay

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Internist Reflection Essay



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Writing a Good Reflective Essay: from Introduction to Conclusion!

Please discuss challenges in your journey thus far to medical school. Please specially discuss how, if admitted to our program, your admission would contribute to the diversity of the Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science community. Create a superhero for your current city, town or municipality. What would they fight? Describe their appearance, name and special powers. Explain how you know that you want to spend your life studying and practicing medicine.

Social justice in the Jesuit tradition, justice due each person by virtue of their own inherent human dignity, is an essential dimension of education at SSOM. Describe what you have learned about yourself from your concrete social justice experiences. Explain how you plan to sustain your efforts to advocate for current social justice issues as a medical student and as a physician. Serving underserved and under-resourced communities is an expression of social justice. Describe an impactful experience in working with and for under-resourced communities.

Explain what you have learned about yourself through this service OR what has hindered your efforts to serve others in these environments. Describe your leadership style. Provide a specific example of how you have applied your leadership style. Please indicate additional grades earned, amendments to your proposed coursework or graduation date, address changes, additions to your list of experiences, and anything else you feel we should know. Please explain in more detail in less than characters anything that would help us understand any gaps or delays in your education, academic missteps, or personal challenges not listed elsewhere. If you have not been enrolled in coursework for over two years, please let us know what you have been doing since your coursework ended.

Have you applied to SSOM prior to this application? If so, please list the years of your previous application submissions to SSOM and tell us how your application has improved since your previous submission. Are you currently, or have you been, enrolled in any of the following programs? Listed in app portal. If the answer is yes, please explain below. If you did not submit an advisor or committee letter, please tell us why. Why do you believe CCOM would provide you with the type of osteopathic medical education you are seeking? Why should CCOM accept you into this year's class? Given the distinctive educational philosophy and integrated curriculum at FSM, describe how your personal characteristics and learning style would align with the institution.

Describe specific steps you take to manage your stress and maintain wellness while balancing personal, educational, and professional responsibilities. Describe one specific interest in medicine and how FSM, located in Chicago which is one of the most culturally diverse cities in the country, will help you achieve this professional goal. Include any academic, personal, financial, or professional barriers, as well as any other relevant information. For applicants with interrupted training : If you have a year or more between college graduation and medical school matriculation, describe both your completed activities and future plans during the gap period.

For reapplicants : Please also address steps taken to improve your application for medical school. The Feinberg School of Medicine values diversity as a measure of excellence. We define diversity as the totality of the characteristics and experiences of our students. We believe that a diverse student body improves the educational environment and the ability of our graduates to serve an increasingly diverse patient population. Narrative Descriptions: Everyone has their own narrative. Please provide more detail about how your experiences would enrich the Northwestern community. Rush Medical College of Rush University. Describe personal attributes you possess or life experiences you have had that will enable you to better understand patients with a culture different from your own.

Reflect on a time in which you personally gained more from an experience than what was expected. Use this space to provide additional information you would like the Committee on Admissions to be aware of when reviewing your application Optional , characters. Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. SIU School of Medicine uses a holistic approach to identify and select a diverse student body best suited to fulfill its mission: to assist the people of central and southern Illinois in meeting their health care needs through education, patient care, research, and service to the community.

In what ways do you believe you would contribute to this mission? Please limit your answer to words or less. To be successful as a student at SIU School of Medicine and as a practicing physician, you must be flexible and committed to cultivating and employing critical interactive and learning skills. Describe your experiences that demonstrate: contribution in a teamwork setting; engagement in self-directed and life-long learning taking personal initiative to identify and address your learning goals and needs ; and exposure to the small group tutorial process used in a problem-based learning environment. If you have previously applied to SIU School of Medicine, please describe how you feel you have strengthened your credentials since that application.

University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine. Please write a short essay about why you are applying to the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine. We suggest that you limit your essay to about words. Share with us a difficult or challenging situation you have encountered and how you dealt with it. In your response, identify both the coping skills you called upon to resolve the dilemma, and the support person s from whom you sought advice. Optional Additional Information: Please feel free to use this space to convey any additional information that you might wish the Committee to know.

For example, if you are not currently completing a degree, please share your planned or current activities for this application cycle. You may also wish to include any impact that COVID has had on your educational, research, or extracurricular plans. We suggest that you limit your text to about words. University of Illinois College of Medicine. Describe a stressful situation that you have experienced. Please detail your reaction, how you managed the situation, and what you learned that will help you handle a similar circumstance in the future. No word limit indicated. In addition to training as a competent physician please select up to two additional areas of interest from the items below that you may want to pursue during your medical studies.

Your responses will have no bearing on applications to joint degrees or special programs to which you might also apply. Selecting any of the above results in a new box where you describe your interest in that area of interest. Please describe any abrupt changes that you experienced in your preparation for application for medical school due to the COVID pandemic. Indiana University School of Medicine. There are no secondary essay prompts for the — cycle.

Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Please explain any gaps in education or employment longer than holidays and semester breaks. Do you have experience shadowing or working with a physician DO or MD? Are you interested in practicing medicine in Indiana? If yes, please describe your interest and reasons why. If not, please explain why not. Do you have any connections to the state of Indiana? If yes, please describe your connections.

No word limit. Please list, up to, your top 3 specialties of interest below and why. Please be specific. Des Moines College of Osteopathic Medicine. If you have previously applied to medical school, how has your application improved? Please describe your exposure to osteopathic medicine, including but not limited to experiences with physicians in primary care or rural practice within the U. How have these experiences impacted you and your pursuit of osteopathic medical education as it relates to the mission of Des Moines University? What activities are you currently or planning to pursue leading up to potential matriculation?

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. We understand you may be applying to multiple medical schools. Please explain your reasons for applying to the Carver College of Medicine. Describe any unique personal characteristics or obstacles you may have overcome that will influence your contribution to a diverse healthcare system. Do NOT forecast future hours. If you are a reapplicant to the Carver College of Medicine, how have you strengthened your application? If you are not currently in a degree-seeking program, please indicate what you will be doing from the time you complete this secondary application to the start of medical school. What are you currently doing to maintain your academic knowledge?

Describe a time when you had a personal failure. How did you move on from that experience? We are often too busy to plan future activities. Describe a time when you were so busy you had to react to situations rather than plan for them. University of Kansas School of Medicine. Provide relatively brief 1, character maximum answers to the following questions. Required fields are marked with an asterisk. Describe examples of leadership experience in which you have significantly influenced others, helped resolve disputes, or contributed to group efforts over time. Beyond academics grades and MCATs , describe the most significant challenge you have faced and the steps you have taken to address this challenge.

Give an example of what you have done to make your community a better place to live. Describe how you relate to someone who is very different from you. If you are not a Kansas resident, what is your specific interest in applying to the University of Kansas School of Medicine? Indicate grades earned, alterations in your proposed course work or graduation time, additions to your extracurricular activities, or other pertinent information.

If there are discrepancies in your application that have not been explained in your personal statement, use this space to clarify. Examples may include unexplained gaps in time, multiple undergraduate institutions attended, multiple course withdrawals, inconsistent academic performance, inconsistency between academic performance and MCAT scores. If you are currently enrolled, or plan to be enrolled during the next academic year, in a graduate or professional degree program, please describe your status within the program and your intention to complete the program.

You must also request a letter from your graduate program advisor or from the dean of your professional school. This letter must include acknowledgement of your application to medical school and a description of your status in the program. For Repeat Applicants Only: Since your last application, note any relevant academic, employment, and personal experiences that enhance your ability to be a better physician. If yes, provide appropriate explanation s , including the date s of conviction, case number s , and the jurisdictional court s involved. University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Please elaborate on why this is your preferred campus. What competencies and qualities do you feel a physician should possess? Describe an experience or situation which made you feel grateful?

In providing patient care, should physicians maintain emotional distance or empathize with patients' emotional state? It is impossible to have predicted the drastic impact caused by the novel coronavirus identified as COVID Describe the impact you have witnessed of this pandemic on those around you. Additional prompts for out-of-state applicants:. Why have you chosen to apply to the University of Kentucky College of Medicine?

Please elaborate on personal characteristics and any accomplishments and experiences that you feel help to demonstrate your potential to contribute to the college and to the profession of medicine. Please elaborate on any Kentucky ties: personal, familial, etc. University of Louisville School of Medicine. Why are you choosing to apply to the University of Louisville School of Medicine? How well did your high school prepare you for college? What determined your choice of college s? Please describe any circumstances adversely affecting your academic performance while in college. What has been your most significant contribution to your community, through service or volunteerism? What was its impact on the community and on you?

How have your cultural experiences shaped the way you see yourself contributing to the medical field and strengthened your ability to provide equitable care for a diverse patient population? Optional List and describe any additional experiences, interests, hobbies, or skills not included in other areas of your application or that you have completed since submitting your AMCAS application. Discuss briefly why you have decided to pursue medicine and how your personal characteristics align with those you believe are most needed by physicians. Practice after residency: How do you see yourself practicing medicine after residency training? Please include choice of medical practice and location.

Please describe your experience with osteopathic medicine, such as your care and treatment from a DO and your shadowing experience with a DO including number of hours. Please describe how your experience has influenced your decision to apply to an osteopathic medical school. Optional Supplemental essay: to words of your values. If you are not a Louisiana resident, please describe your connection, if any, to Louisiana characters. Briefly describe a time or situation where you have been unsuccessful. What did you learn from this experience and how can you use it to contribute to the LSU Health Shreveport community? Tulane University School of Medicine. Briefly describe the reasons for your interest in Tulane University School of Medicine. Briefly describe how community service contributed to your education and your passion for medicine.

Please list any leadership positions, in clubs or organizations, you may have held. Please list your hobbies and major non-academic interests. Optional Tulane University School of Medicine values the diversity of its patients, faculty, staff, and students. Do you identify with a particular group that you believe is underrepresented among medical professionals? These include groups oriented around, but not limited to: ethnicity, race, sexuality, religion, disability, and economic background. If yes, please indicate the program and year in which you applied. Please be concise and specific. Give an example of when you worked on an effective team, either academically or professionally. Explain why a team-based approach is the right model for your medical education.

Question 4: characters If everything goes according to plan, how and where do you see yourself professionally in ten years? How come? Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Briefly describe your single, most rewarding experience. Are there any areas of medicine that are of particular interest to you? If so, please comment. Briefly describe a situation where you had to overcome adversity; include lessons learned and how you think it will affect your career as a future physician.

Briefly describe a situation where you were not in the majority. What did you learn from the experience? Wonder encapsulates a feeling of rapt attention … it draws the observer in. Tell us about a time in recent years that you experienced wonder in your everyday life. Although experiences related to your clinical or research work may be the first to come to mind, we encourage you to think of an experience that is unrelated to medicine or science. What did you learn from that experience? Optional: The Admissions Committee values hearing about each candidate for admission, including what qualities the candidate might bring to the School of Medicine if admitted. If you feel there is information not already addressed in the application that will enable the Committee to know more about you and this has influenced your desire to be a physician, feel free to write a brief statement in the space below.

You may address any subject you wish, such as being a first generation college student, or being a part of a minority group whether because of your sexual orientation, religion, economic status, gender identity, ethnicity or being the child of undocumented immigrants or being undocumented yourself, etc. Please note that this question is optional and that you will not be penalized should you choose not to answer it. Edward Hebert School of Medicine. What are your thoughts and impressions about serving as a uniformed medical corps officer, and why do you want to pursue this career path?

USU strives to be a diverse, equitable, and inclusive community. Our Admissions Committee assembles classes of students with a wide range of backgrounds, skills, experiences, and talents. Please describe how a special quality or experience of yours will help you participate effectively in this environment. University of Maryland School of Medicine. Please include withdrawals, incompletes, poor grades, etc. If you feel that you have not had any academic problems please state that. If a specific medical school application activity was impacted by the COVID outbreak, please describe the activity, the time period during which it was to take place, and any relevant contact information. Please explain what you will be doing during the academic year. Briefly describe your most important exposure to clinical medicine.

Briefly describe your most satisfying experience related to community service. Without limiting the discussion to your own identity, please describe how you envision contributing to the core values of diversity and inclusion at our School of Medicine, and in the medical profession. What does it mean to you to enter into a profession? Boston University School of Medicine. Are you expecting to go on to medical school directly after completing your undergraduate degree?

Post-bacc work is NOT considered undergraduate. If attending a post-bacc program prior to entering medical school, the answer is NO and should be explained. If you took gap year s , please use this space to explain what you have been doing prior to applying to medical school. If you have spent more than 4 years as an undergraduate, please explain below. You may skip this question if you have graduated within 4 years. Please provide a narrative or timeline to describe any features of your educational history that you think may be of particular interest to us.

For example, have you lived in another country or experienced a culture unlike your own, or worked in a field that contributed to your understanding of people unlike yourself? Or, have you experienced advanced training in any area, including the fields of art, music, or sports? This is an opportunity to describe learning experiences that may not be covered in other areas of this application or your AMCAS application. It is not necessary to write anything in this section. Why BUSM? Boston Medical Center is the largest safety net hospital in New England, serving primarily people who are publicly insured, people of color, immigrants, and low-income people in the Greater Boston Area.

Why are you specifically interested in beginning your medical education in this environment, and how do you feel that your previous experiences will prepare you for this unique learning environment? Optional essay: Use the space below to provide additional information you feel will provide us with a comprehensive understanding of your strengths as a candidate for a career in medicine. Most applicants leave this blank. Yes, it's really optional. Harvard Medical School. If you have already graduated, briefly summarize your activities since graduation. If there is an important aspect of your personal background or identity, not addressed elsewhere in the application, that you would like to share with the Committee, we invite you to do so here.

The interview season for the cycle will be held virtually and is anticipated to run from mid-September through January Please indicate any significant three or more weeks restriction on your availability for interviews during this period. If none, please leave this section blank. Our students come from the full spectrum of disciplines including biological, physical, engineering and social sciences. HST classes are small, commonly include graduate students and have an emphasis on quantitative and analytic approaches. Please focus on how your interests, experiences and aspirations have prepared you for HST rather than identifying specific HST faculty or research opportunities. Limit your comments to the equivalent of one page of single-spaced text with a font size of 10 or If you wish to inform the Committee as to how these events have affected you and have not already done so elsewhere in your application, please use this space to do so.

This is an optional essay; the Committee on Admissions will make no judgment based on your decision to provide a statement or not. Tufts University School of Medicine. Please briefly describe your plans for the coming year. Include in this explanation if you will be a student, working, conducting research, volunteering, etc. Do you consider yourself a person who would contribute to the diversity of the student body of Tufts University School of Medicine? Given how the COVID pandemic has altered the world this year, please contextualize how your experiences have been affected which might include your personal, professional and educational journey.

We understand that many applicants encounter academic hardships along the way. Please comment on any academic difficulties that you have encountered since completing high school grades and MCAT scores and that you believe might adversely affect your likelihood of medical school acceptance. We believe that such difficulties offer an opportunity for growth and would appreciate learning how your experiences have affected your approach to academics. If you have not encountered any difficulties, you may answer 'No'. University of Massachusetts Medical School. We would like to learn how you developed and demonstrated core professionalism competencies that are required of entering medical students.

Please respond to the first prompt 1; Diversity. Then select three of the other six prompts 2- 7. Each response should be words. Use the text box below for your answer. UMass Medical School strives to be a diverse academic community mindful of the fact that diversity makes our community stronger and benefits the patients we serve. Share your definition of diversity. Describe an example where you contributed to the diversity of a group, team or class.

Connect this to how you will contribute to the diversity of the UMass Medical School community. Describe a time when you have made a decision that was not popular and how you handled this. Leadership competency. Describe a time when you were on a team that was dysfunctional in some regard. How did you address the situation? Describe a meaningful interaction you have had with a person whom you have helped at work, school or another activity.

Have you ever been in the middle of a situation where there was poor communication? What did you do to improve it? Describe a time when you have "thought outside the box" to solve a problem. Describe a time when you suffered a setback. How did you respond to this challenge? Please discuss any part of your application that you feel requires further explanation. Discuss any impact that the COVID pandemic has had on your academic, service, extracurricular or employment experiences. If you are currently taking a gap year, in what activities are you engaged? Central Michigan University College of Medicine.

Describe your motivation for applying to the CMU College of Medicine and your future career in medicine. Finally, describe how your preparation and background will contribute to the mission of the CMU College of Medicine. Reapplicants only: If you have applied to any medical school in previous cycles, what have you done since your last application to prepare yourself for a career in medicine? What do you realistically hope will be your most significant accomplishment by that time? American society may be facing a watershed moment as it reckons with various systemic injustices.

Use the space below to share your thoughts about this statement. If you could present yourself to the Committee on Admissions, what would you want to make sure they knew about you? What skills and traits do you think are essential in becoming an effective osteopathic physician? Is there any aspect of medicine you think you do not like? If so, what, and why not? How have your experiences serving others contributed to your personal growth, and how would your experiences contribute to diversity, equity, and inclusiveness in our community?

Optional: Is there anything you want the admissions committee to know about your qualifications for medical school that are not already represented in your application materials? For example, if you have already graduated, briefly summarize your activities since graduation. Note: This space is provided for new information only, not to promote qualifications already highlighted in your other materials. Please describe how you have overcome obstacles or adapted during the COVID epidemic to continue to show your commitment to serving the community and gaining meaningful medical experience.

University of Michigan Medical School. Respond to either of the following, depending on which program you are applying to:. MD applicants: Comment on how you hope to impact medicine in the future. If examples are needed, feel free to refer to our eight Paths of Excellence. Do not exceed characters including spaces about words. If you are interested in a specific department, program, or area of research for your Ph. Please respond to ONLY one of the following two prompts. Describe your identity and how it has impacted the development of your values and attitudes toward individuals different from yourself and how this will impact your interactions with future colleagues and patients. Please feel free to describe any positive or negative aspects.

Tell us something you are passionate about and why. Wayne State University School of Medicine. What characteristics and qualities are necessary for successful leadership? Do you think all physicians should be leaders? Please discuss your reasons. During the pandemic we frequently encounter information gaps. Discuss one such gap and how you went about gathering and using the information you found. How has that affected your outlook on the role of medicine?

Please discuss how. Please answer if you have had a gap between completion of your undergraduate degree and applying to medical school career change, re-applicant, etc. What have you done during the interval since graduation or your previous application? How does that experience or activity relate to your future career in medicine? Please note, non-Canadian international applicants are only eligible for admission if they have completed a degree at Wayne State University. International applicants are NOT eligible for federal student financial aid and must provide proof of funding prior to matriculation.

Western Michigan University School of Medicine. Describe why you wish to enroll at WMed. You should describe any connection you have to southwest Michigan. Describe what you bring to the practice of medicine - your values, skills, talents, life experiences - and how you add to the cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity of the medical profession. If COVID impacted you, your academic plan, or your planned experiences, and you have not noted elsewhere, please detail below. Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine. Why are you specifically interested in pursuing your medical education at Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine?

Please tell us in a few sentences why you are interested in the top choice track you indicated. We are all differentiated from or connected to one another by individual inflections that constitute our diversity. Explain how your relationship with your own diversity and to the diversities of others manifests in your personal and professional activities. Share with us your thoughts about the relevance — or not — of diverse learning environments in which you wish to learn medicine.

University of Minnesota Medical School—Duluth. Please state which of these missions you are applying to the school for and explain how you do or will fulfill this mission s. Please note, your application will be evaluated in the context of the mission s you select. Consider your future career serving the Duluth campus mission s ; what are some of the professional and personal advantages and disadvantages of a medical practice that serves the Duluth campus mission s? How have you familiarized yourself with the field of medicine? Medical school can be stressful. What coping skills have you used in the past to deal with stressful situations?

What recreational and leisure activities do you enjoy? Tell us about a time when you acted with implicit or explicit bias. How did you become aware of this and what did you do to address the situation or what will you do in the future? Through any situation we are interested in what you learned. Please tell us about your identity. How has your identity impacted the development of your values and attitudes toward others, particularly those with values different from your own? How will this impact the learning environment during your training and your future patients? Our country is reckoning with its history, racism, racial injustice, and especially anti-black racism.

Please share your reflections on, experiences with, and greatest lessons learned about systemic racism. Please describe what impact, if any, this has had on your path to medical school. Optional Since you have submitted your AMCAS application, please use this space to update or add any experiences that you feel our Admissions Committee should know about. Tell us about a time when you recovered from a non-academic setback. How did you recognize the setback and what steps did you take to recover? Tell us about a time when you advocated for someone or something?

What did you learn from this situation? Tell us about a time when you observed, personally experienced, or acted with implicit or explicit bias. Through either situation we are interested in what you learned. How has your identity impacted the development of your values and your attitude toward others, particularly those with values different from your own?

How will this impact your future patients through the practice of medicine? Why do you want to go to medical school in the state of MN? Consider the state of Minnesota and your interest in the University of Minnesota. The COVID pandemic has created innumerable challenges and loss and uncharted territory in public health. Please tell us what impact, if any, this has had on your path to medical school. What other pertinent information would you like to bring to the attention of the Admissions Committee?

This is an opportunity for you to discuss an aspect of your journey to medicine that you have not already presented in your application. You may also update us with any current experiences that were not included in your AMCAS application. University of Mississippi School of Medicine. Please describe your motivation for pursuing the medical degree. Please discuss how the COVID pandemic affected your academic preparation for medical school or opportunities for shadowing, volunteering, research, etc.

Please also discuss any other impact of the pandemic that you would like the admissions executive committee to know. The Mission of the William Carey University College of Osteopathic Medicine WCUCOM is to prepare men and women to become osteopathic physicians through an emphasis on primary care, lifelong learning, research and scholarly activities, and service, including osteopathic clinical service, and graduate medical education. Using a community-based training model, the COM will educate and train graduates who are committed to serving the healthcare needs of all individuals, with special attention directed to the medically underserved and diverse populations of the state, region, nation and across the globe. E Remind students that this activity is not just about placing all their experiences, both the positive or negative but it is about seeing their transitions and developments as they go through life.

They need to plan their EP personal timeline carefully and be mindful of the events that made them grow, that they have learned important wisdom in life and where they rise from the challenges besides the topic is on developmental stages. Focus on the resiliency rather than the downfall. In this way, they can see the future progressively and full of hope.

If there are students whom you observe highly D sensitive or apathetic, refer them to the guidance counselor. Explain the Developmental Stages, and concentrate on the developmental tasks during Adolescence and Early Adulthood. Entertain questions and discussions on the issues of this developmental stage. Motivation: LINE-UP Tell the students that you want them to line up in the order of their birthdays, so that the order goes from oldest to youngest. However, they cannot speak to one another to figure out when their birthdays are. The students will try different things like charades and writing to figure out the order.

This teaches them to cooperate with 19 All rights reserved. In very large groups, you can choose to have them go from tallest to shortest or by largest to smallest shoe size to save time. Be creative with your categories and you may include category with a twist where you will just disclose the qualifier after they formed their line. After the icebreaker, ask how they feel and the process they underwent. It helps to plan the future in a better constructive way. Using a bond paper, write the major events in your life and the significant people in your life. You may add your age, specific dates and places. You may draw PY the timeline horizontally, vertically, diagonally or even using ups and down depending on your imagination. Be creative in your representations. You may also use symbols, figures and drawings.

Think of a title for your personal timeline. You may use crayons or art materials depending on the available resources or just a simple paper and pen may be fine. You can also go for the O personal timeline website template samples available online. Answer the following questions: 1. If you will give a D title for your timeline what would it be and why? Identify the turning points in your timeline. What were the thoughts, feelings and actions that you experienced?

What would you change or add, if you could? Also, how would each of these changes or additions affect your life, or even change its present course? Continue to your future, where do you want to be in a year, 5 years, 10 years? What do you expect your future timeline will be? The study of human development is essential to understanding how humans learn, mature and adapt. Throughout their lives, humans go through various stages of development. The human being is either in a state of growth or decline, but either condition imparts change. Some aspects of our life change very little over time, are consistent.

Other aspects change dramatically. By understanding these changes, we can better respond and plan ahead effectively. Developmental Stage Characteristics 1. Pre-natal Age when hereditary endowments and sex are fixed and all Conception to birth body features, both external and internal are developed. Infancy Foundation age when basic behavior are organized and Birth to 2 years many ontogenetic maturation skills are developed. Pre-gang age, exploratory, and questioning. Language and 3. Early Childhood elementary reasoning are acquired and initial socialization is 2 to 6 years experienced.

Late Childhood Gang and creativity age when self-help skills, social skills, 6 to 12 years school skills, and play are developed. Transition age from childhood to adulthood when sex 5. Adolescence maturation and rapid physical development occur resulting to puberty to 18 years changes in ways of feeling, thinking and acting. Early Adulthood Age of adjustment to new patterns of life and roles such as PY 18 to 40 years spouse, parent and bread winner. Middle Age Transition age when adjustments to initial physical and 40 years to retirement mental decline are experienced. Old Age Retirement age when increasingly rapid physical and mental Retirement to death decline are experienced. Havighurst elaborated the Developmental Tasks Theory in the most C systematic and extensive manner.

His main assertion is that development is continuous throughout the entire lifespan, occurring in stages, where the individual moves from one stage to the next by means of successful resolution of problems or performance of developmental tasks. These tasks are those that are typically D encountered by most people in the culture where the individual belongs. This E success provides a sound foundation which allows the individual to accomplish tasks to be encountered at later stages.

Conversely, if the individual is not successful at accomplishing a task, he is unhappy and is not accorded the desired approval by EP society, resulting in the subsequent experience of difficulty when faced with succeeding developmental tasks. This theory presents the individual as an active learner who continually interacts with a similarly active social environment. Psychology: Dimensions of the Human Mind. Mutya Publishing House, Inc. Initiate the first activity on Developmental Tasks of Being in Grade The students form triads. Each triad discusses and writes similarities and differences of their own assessment. Volunteer triads make a short oral report to the class on the results of their discussion.

Teacher summarizes the findings of the triads, using the processing questions. Lead students to do the second activity on Mindfulness. Lead short discussion following the processing questions and the reading on Living Mindfully. Explain the requirements for Portfolio Output No. Use the worksheet below: What are the expected tasks What are the expected tasks What are the expected tasks you have successfully you have partially you have not accomplished?

Processing Questions: 1. Being in Grade 11, what are the developmental tasks expected of you? Rate yourself from 10 as the highest whether you have accomplished those expected tasks? As you are in Grade 11, you are in transition from high school to college, from being an adolescent to young adult. How do you feel about this transition? What is your turning point? Do you think you are ready in this transition which may mean more responsibilities and greater accountability?

If no, what are the expected tasks O you need to work on? If yes, what are the ways so you can better plan for the future? C For each of the following situations, decide whether the person followed these guidelines for mindful speech: Is what I want to say True? D Is what I want to say Helpful? Am I the best one to say it? Is it necessary to say it Now? E Is it Kind to this person and others? There could be more than one 'correct' answer. The purpose of this activity is to reflect on the situations and whether you've witnessed or experienced something similar in your own life. I did really well on an exam.

What did you get? One of my friends was bragging about getting a good score on a test, and I didn't want to tell him I failed. I said, "Congratulations! Did I T. People kept telling me about this strange color Mrs. Jenkins dyed her hair. A woman with a big belly was about to enter the building. I saw a couple of kids cheating on a test. I saw a girl looking at her phone during a test.

I went up to the teacher after class and told him she was cheating. I called PY Maria and said her boyfriend was cheating on her. Before You Speak. Have Mindful Speech. C Portfolio Output No. Has someone ever asked you a question that you really didn't want to answer? How did you respond? How did you feel afterwards? Did you ever do something to be helpful that turned out badly? What happened? E What do you wish had happened? Did you say anything? Why or why not? Have you ever gotten in trouble because someone caught you cheating or thought you were cheating?

What do you wish had happened? In what other situations have you seen someone T. In the same way, using the present moment tools below will help you to hone a consistent mindfulness practice that will in time lead to a more aware, compassionate and fulfilling way of life. Tool 1: Breathe Mindfully. Use your breath as an anchor to still your mind and bring your focus back to the present moment. Tool 2: Listen Deeply. Listen with intention; let others fully express themselves and focus on understanding how they think and feel. Tool 3: Cultivate Insight. See life as it is, allowing each experience to be an opportunity for learning. Tool 4: Practice Compassion. Consider the thoughts and feelings of others and let tenderness, kindness and empathy be your guides.

Tool 5: Limit Reactivity. Observe rather than be controlled by your emotions. Pause, breathe, and choose a skillful response based on thoughtful speech and non- violence under every condition. Tool 6: Express Gratitude. Practice gratitude daily and expand it outward, appreciating everyone and everything you encounter. Tool 7: Nurture Mutual Respect. Appreciate our common humanity and value different perspectives as well as your own. Tool 8: Build Integrity. Cultivate constructive values and consistently act from respect, honesty and kindness. Tool 9: Foster Leadership. Engage fully in life and in community. Share your unique PY talents and generosity so that others can also be inspired.

Tool Be Peace. Cultivate your own inner peace, becoming an agent for compassionate action and social good. Which of the tools do you use most often? Which tools do you use least often? Can you think of ways to incorporate those tools into your life? Which one could you try today? O Source: info mwithoutborders. E Objectives: At the end of this module, learners will be able to: EP 1. Discuss how to face the challenges during adolescence, they may able to clarify and manage the demands of teen years, 2. Express their feelings on the expectations of the significant people around them, such as their parents, siblings, friends, teachers, community leaders, and D 3.

Make affirmations that help them become more lovable and capable as an adolescent. Have the entire group stand in a circle, shoulder to shoulder. Tell the students to get a small item from their own bag, for example, a key, an ID, or a small wrapped candy. Start reading the story slowly. After a few passes, stop reading the story and ask them how they are doing. Now continue to read the story, getting faster as you go. Stop the story a couple of more times to check on how they are doing. After reading the story, tell the students to return the item in their hand to the owner. Ask the following questions: How much of the story can you PY remember?

What does this activity tell us about communication? What does this activity tell us about listening skills? Similarly, in our everyday lives, we often have tasks that pull us in many directions, but we should always remember what is important - the health of O young people. Divide the class into four groups. Each group will think of one developmental challenge and discuss specific situations where this particular challenge is seen in their everyday living. Presentation must be a maximum of 10 minutes per group.

The group will be given 10 minutes to plan and write a script. Then, they will be given another 10 minutes to rehearse for the role play. The group will present a minute role play and at the end of each presentation, the rest of their classmates will suggest ways on how to E effectively manage these challenges. The objective of this session is for students to express how they feel about the expectations of the significant people parents, siblings, friends, teachers, D community leaders in their lives. The activity aims to assist students to realize that the opinions of other people are important but they need to classify the effects of those opinions to their over-all well-being.

They have the power to accept or negate it. Being an adolescent, opinions of their peers are often considered as their highest priority but they often realized how powerful the expectations of other significant people in their lives especially their parents or even grandparents. If you notice that a student has difficulty giving and receiving affirmations, you may refer him or her to the guidance counselor. Give assignment: Bring bond paper and coloring materials for the slogan making next session. The first thing they had to decide was who would be left at home since there was not enough room in the Wright family car for all of them. Wright decided that Aunt Linda Wright would be the one left at home.

Of course this made Aunt Linda Wright so mad that she left the house immediately yelling "It will be a right cold day before I return". Unfortunately, as they turned out of the driveway someone had left a trash can in the street so they had to turn right around and stop the car. They told Tommy Wright to get out of the car and move the trash can so they could PY get going. Tommy took so long that they almost left him in the street. Once the Wright family got on the road, Mother Wright wondered if she had left the stove on. Father Wright told her not to worry he had checked the stove and she had not left it on. As they turned right at the corner, everyone started to think about other things that they might have left undone.

No need to worry now, they were off on a right fine vacation. When they arrived at the O gas station, Father Wright put gas in the car and then discovered that he had left his wallet at home. So Timmy Wright ran home to get the money that was left behind. After Timmy had left, Susan Wright started to feel sick. She left the car saying that she had to throw up.

This of course got Mother Wright's attention and she left the car in a hurry. Shelly Wright wanted to C watch Susan get sick, so she left the car too. Father Wright was left with Tommy Wright who was playing a game in the backseat. With all of this going on, Father Wright decided that this was not the right time to take D a vacation, so he gathered up all of the family and left the gas station as quickly as he could. When he arrived home, he turned left into the driveway and said "I wish the Wright family had never left the house today! This session will portray these challenges and reflect on the most D effective way to face these situations.

Plan a role play on a specific situation in which a developmental challenge of middle adolescence is seen in your everyday living. Practice your role play with your group mates. Perform your role play in class. Include this report and the script. Evans, Ph. Encouragement is the key ingredient for improving your relationships with D others. It is the single most important skill necessary for getting along with others — so important that the lack of it could be considered the primary cause of conflict and misbehavior.

Encouragement is the lifeblood of a relationship. And yet this simple concept is often very hard to put into practice. Encouragement is not a new idea. However, even today, relatively few educators, parents, psychologists, leaders or couples have utilized this valuable concept. Half the job of encouragement lies in avoiding discouraging words and actions. When children or adults misbehave, it is usually because they are discouraged. Instead of building them up, we tear them down; instead of recognizing their efforts and improvements, we point out mistakes; instead of allowing them to belong through shared decision-making and meaningful contributions, we isolate and label them.

Most of us are skilled discouragers. We have learned how to bribe, reward and, when that fails, to punish, criticize, nag, threaten, interrogate and emotionally withdraw. We do this as an attempt to control those we love, bolstered by the mistaken belief that we are responsible for the behavior of everyone around us, especially our spouses and children. These attempts to control behavior create atmospheres of tension and conflict in many houses.

We dominate others by being overly helpful, implying that they are unable to do it O as well. Encouragement is not a technique nor is it a special language used to gain compliance. Encouragement conveys the idea that all human beings are worthwhile, C simply because they exist. In one sentence, Mr. Encouragement enhances a feeling of belonging which leads to greater social interest. Social interest is the tendency for people to unite themselves with other human E beings and to accomplish their tasks in cooperation with others.

The first step to becoming an encouraging person is to learn to distinguish encouragement from discouragement. As a rule, ask yourself: Whatever I say or do, will it bring me closer together or farther apart from this person? We all have the power to be more encouraging people. The choice, as always, is D yours. The last session on self-development emphasizes self-affirmation. Remind students that even though opinions of other people are important, what they think and how they feel about themselves is far more potent. Encourage students to make their personal declaration and make a creative slogan to highlight its impact. Be resourceful. You may ask for volunteers to share their work with the class.

As integration activity, tell students that developing the self may not be an easy journey towards happiness but it is worth pursuing. Emily DeCarlo So often we accept the declarations that others have made concerning our own lives, wellbeing or fate. It is imperative that we recognize that in order to achieve what we want in life, we must not give our power away to others by accepting their declarations concerning our affairs. When one decides that he or she will boldly declare good fortune, wellness, joy, etc. Goodness and O mercy shall surely follow.

From birth, we are often told what we are going to be. Sometimes, this is a good thing, but supposes you have been told time and time again that "you will not amount to C anything just like your mother or father"? This is a dangerous declaration because it sets into motion the actualization of an unwanted occurrence. All of us want to amount to something! In order to counteract this and all of the negative declarations with their destructive potential, one must consciously replace them with one's own declarations.

In so doing, you are now in control of setting into action what you really want to occur. You D can declare that goodness and mercy shall surely follow you all the days of your life! The following are some declarations that you may want to make concerning your life: E I declare: that I am totally free of all addictions. EP that I will survive any attempts of others to control my life. D that I will be an ambassador of goodwill to all I meet on the journey.

These declarations are meant to encourage you to take control of the influences in your life. They are suggestions as to what positive things you can speak about your own life instead of accepting whatever has been said about you in the past. You now 30 All rights reserved. Just as in a garden, you may have to pull and pull until you get some weeds out. Sometimes, the negative comments and declarations of others have taken such a stronghold in our lives, that we must persist until we see the bough not only fall, but break into pieces. Don't be discouraged if you don't reach your goals overnight.

Just remember that even a small stream of water will crack concrete eventually!! Choose a phrase, sentence, or paragraph that strikes you. Make a slogan or personal declaration on how you can be committed to your self-development. Explain your thoughts and feelings about it. Include specific ways in which you will develop yourself further. Only you can prevent it from going into decadence. There are many that need you, admire you and love you. I would like to remind you that being happy is not having a sky without storms, or roads without accidents, or work without fatigue, or relationships without disappointments. Being happy is not only to treasure the smile, but that you also reflect on the D sadness.

It is not just commemorating the event, but also learning lessons in failures. It is not just having joy with the applause, but also having joy in anonymity. Being happy is to recognize that it is worthwhile to live, despite all the challenges, E misunderstandings and times of crises. Being happy is not inevitable fate, but a victory for those who can travel towards it with your own being. EP Being happy is to stop being a victim of problems but become an actor in history itself. It is not only to cross the deserts outside of ourselves, but still more, to be able to find an oasis in the recesses of our soul. It is to thank God every morning for the miracle of life. Being happy is not being afraid of one's feelings.

It is to know how to talk about D ourselves. It is to bear with courage when hearing a "no". It is to have the security to receive criticism, even if is unfair. It is to kiss the children, pamper the parents, and have poetic moments with friends, even if they hurt us. Being happy means allowing the free, happy and simple child inside each of us to live; having the maturity to say, "I was wrong"; having the audacity to say, "forgive me". It is to have sensitivity in expressing, "I need you"; to have the ability of saying, "I love you. In your spring-time, may you become a lover of joy. In your winter, may you become a friend of wisdom. And when you go wrong along the way, you start all over again.

Thus you will be more passionate about life. And you will find that happiness is not about having a perfect life but about using tears to water tolerance, losses to refine patience, failures to carve serenity, pain to lapidate pleasure, obstacles to open the windows of intelligence. Never give up Never give up on the people you love. Never give up from being happy because life is an incredible show. And you are a special human being! Aspects of Development with Plan of Action Individual work 4. Personal Recipe for Success with reflection Individual work Module 3: 5. My Personal Timeline with Reflection Individual work 6. Mindfulness with Reflection Individual work O Module 4: 7.

Objectives: At the end of this module learners will be able to: 1. Two common sources of stress are change and loss. Reactions to loss are individually different and can vary for many reasons. D Finding ways to cope and adjust to the changes and losses are critical for students. It is caused by any kind of demand, to which we must adapt, adjust, or respond. Conduct the Motivation: Stress Bingo. Have students walk around and find D someone who participates in one of the activities listed on the Bingo sheet. Try to find a different person for each activity. You may call out different types of Bingo: straight line, diagonal line, all spaces filled out, etc. After a few minutes, end the activity and ask the students how they found the activity.

Was it stressful? How did they cope with the stress? Debrief: Students may realize that most people cope with stress similarly. Give a lecturette on Stress Management. Encourage discussion. Students may choose the top 5 stressors from those listed and compare with 3 other classmates. If there is time, the class can vote on the top 5 stressors for the class. Find someone who regularly participates in one of these activities. If the emotions you experience are pleasant and desirable — joy, elation, ecstasy, delight — you usually feel free to let them show. They are not suppressed.

C Therefore; positive emotions do not usually cause stress. Negative emotions, on the other hand, are more often held inside. They are hidden. You suffer quietly and you experience stress. Do not confuse positive situations with positive emotions. A wedding, for example, is a positive situation that often brings about the negative emotions of D anxiety and tension.

So stress can exist in great situations. Causes and Effects of Stress E Just as there is great variety in the range of emotions you might experience, there are many possible manifestations of stress — in your private life and in your working life. By wearing a mask, you may expect to hide stress caused by problems in your personal life and not let them influence your performance on the job. This will probably not work. The more you try to hold your emotions in, the greater the pressure build-up will be. Everyday frustrations cause stress build-up From the time you wake up until you go to sleep, you may be confronted with a succession of stressful situations.

Managing to get yourself and possibly a spouse and children out of bed and ready to face the day can be a challenge to your patience and ingenuity. You may experience frustration in arranging to get the car repaired. You may face conflicts in school or at work, such as coping with unrealistic deadlines, equipment failures, or unexpected bad weather. You face the next day with less emotional and physical stamina.

After another stressful day and another night without rest, you may have even less emotional strength and stability. Therefore, stress build-up, if not resolved, continues day after day. PY Problems in our personal life can be devastating Surviving the normal, everyday stress described above can be difficult. But far more serious and painful circumstances can create long-term stress. More serious stressful circumstances may include separation from loved ones, personal illness, or illness of a loved one, death of someone you care about, or conflict with a spouse or O close friend.

The list goes on and on. C Managing your personal finances can be another stressful experience. This can be a problem no matter what your income level, but it is especially difficult if you must support a family and do not earn enough to live comfortably. Unpaid bills, unwise use of D credit, and budget limitations can make life difficult. For example, Ellen has just completed a program in fashion merchandising. She is eager to get started on her new job. Her mother is ill and requires care. Her father died a EP few months ago. The move, a new career, and a change in family relationships may cause excessive stress for her. Too many changes have arrived at the same time.

We all have certain things, situations, or people that cause us to lose our composure from time to time. When you begin to identify your stressors, you can become skilled at preventing negative consequences. Place an X next to each factor that causes you stress. There are blank spaces provided so you can add your own. It is caused by any kind of demand to which we must adapt, adjust, or respond.

Some stress is necessary, however D too much stress may cause wear and tear on the body and mind. Major life events, such as moving, separation or divorce of parents, death of a loved one, changing schools or losing a friend, may cause anxiety and distress. E Other day-to-day situations, including being late or leaving a project until the last minute, can also cause stress.

It is important that students learn to EP recognize what might be causing them stress and learn strategies to help control and alleviate stress. His examples were filled with applications to everyday life: business management, how to make furniture he made much of his own , designing a simple house, making a room beautiful now an internet meme or in another, specific case related to education, creating an online writing project that kept minority students from dropping out of school by getting them to do a kind of psychoanalytic exercise on themselves, in which they would free-associate about their past, present and future now known as the Self-Authoring Program.

I was always especially fond of mid-Western, Prairie types who come from a farm where they learned all about nature , or from a very small town, and who have worked with their hands to make things, spent long periods outside in the harsh elements, and are often self-educated and go to university against the odds. I found them quite unlike their sophisticated but somewhat denatured urban counterparts, for whom higher education was pre-ordained, and for that reason sometimes taken for granted, or thought of not as an end in itself but simply as a life stage in the service of career advancement. These Westerners were different: self-made, unentitled, hands on, neighbourly and less precious than many of their big-city peers, who increasingly spend their lives indoors, manipulating symbols on computers.

This cowboy psychologist seemed to care about a thought only if it might, in some way, be helpful to someone. We became friends. As a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who loves literature, I was drawn to him because here was a clinician who also had given himself a great books education, and who not only loved soulful Russian novels, philosophy and ancient mythology, but who also seemed to treat them as his most treasured inheritance. But he also did illuminating statistical research on personality and temperament, and had studied neuroscience. Though trained as a behaviourist, he was powerfully drawn to psychoanalysis with its focus on dreams, archetypes, the persistence of childhood conflicts in the adult, and the role of defences and rationalization in everyday life.

He was also an outlier in being the only member of the research-oriented Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto who also kept a clinical practice. On my visits, our conversations began with banter and laughter—that was the small-town Peterson from the Alberta hinterland—his teenage years right out of the movie FUBAR—welcoming you into his home. The house had been gutted by Tammy, his wife, and himself, and turned into perhaps the most fascinating and shocking middle-class home I had seen. They had art, some carved masks, and abstract portraits, but they were overwhelmed by a huge collection of original Socialist Realist paintings of Lenin and the early Communists commissioned by the USSR.

Not long after the Soviet Union fell, and most of the world breathed a sigh of relief, Peterson began purchasing this propaganda for a song online. Paintings lionizing the Soviet revolutionary spirit completely filled every single wall, the ceilings, even the bathrooms. The paintings were not there because Jordan had any totalitarian sympathies, but because he wanted to remind himself of something he knew he and everyone would rather forget: that hundreds of millions were murdered in the name of utopia. But it was eased by his wonderful and unique spouse, Tammy, who was all in, who embraced and encouraged this unusual need for expression! It was just living in the world as it was, or in some places, is. The brilliance of the book is in his demonstration of how rooted this situation is in evolution, our DNA, our brains and our most ancient stories.

And he shows that these stories have survived because they still provide guidance in dealing with uncertainty, and the unavoidable unknown. One of the many virtues of the book you are reading now is that it provides an entry point into Maps of Meaning, which is a highly complex work because Jordan was working out his approach to psychology as he wrote it. But it was foundational, because no matter how different our genes or life experiences may be, or how differently our plastic brains are wired by our experience, we all have to deal with the unknown, and we all attempt to move from chaos to order.

And this is why many of the rules in this book, being based on Maps of Meaning, have an element of universality to them. And he felt he had to understand the ideologies that drove totalitarian regimes to a variant of that same behaviour: killing their own citizens. In Maps of Meaning, and again in this book, one of the matters he cautions readers to be most wary of is ideology, no matter who is peddling it or to what end. Ideologies are simple ideas, disguised as science or philosophy, that purport to explain the complexity of the world and offer remedies that will perfect it. The warrior identity that their ideology gives them covers over that chaos. Ideologies are substitutes for true knowledge, and ideologues are always dangerous when they come to power, because a simple-minded I-know-it-all approach is no match for the complexity of existence.

Furthermore, when their social contraptions fail to fly, ideologues blame not themselves but all who see through the simplifications. Another great U of T professor, Lewis Feuer, in his book Ideology and the Ideologists, observed that ideologies retool the very religious stories they purport to have supplanted, but eliminate the narrative and psychological richness. Communism borrowed from the story of the Children of Israel in Egypt, with an enslaved class, rich persecutors, a leader, like Lenin, who goes abroad, lives among the enslavers, and then leads the enslaved to the promised land the utopia; the dictatorship of the proletariat.

To understand ideology, Jordan read extensively about not only the Soviet gulag, but also the Holocaust and the rise of Nazism. I had never before met a person, born Christian and of my generation, who was so utterly tormented by what happened in Europe to the Jews, and who had worked so hard to understand how it could have occurred. I too had studied this in depth. My own father survived Auschwitz. My grandmother was middle-aged when she stood face to face with Dr.

Josef Mengele, the Nazi physician who conducted unspeakably cruel experiments on his victims, and she survived Auschwitz by disobeying his order to join the line with the elderly, the grey and the weak, and instead slipping into a line with younger people. My grandfather, her husband, survived the Mauthausen concentration camp, but choked to death on the first piece of solid food he was given, just before liberation day. I relate this, because years after we became friends, when Jordan would take a classical liberal stand for free speech, he would be accused by left-wing extremists as being a right-wing bigot.

Let me say, with all the moderation I can summon: at best, those accusers have simply not done their due diligence. Jordan switched out of political science for similar reasons. He was a master at helping students become more reflective, and take themselves and their futures seriously. He taught them to respect many of the greatest books ever written. He gave vivid examples from clinical practice, was appropriately self- revealing, even of his own vulnerabilities, and made fascinating links between evolution, the brain and religious stories. In a world where students are taught to see evolution and religion as simply opposed by thinkers like Richard Dawkins , Jordan showed his students how evolution, of all things, helps to explain the profound psychological appeal and wisdom of many ancient stories, from Gilgamesh to the life of the Buddha, Egyptian mythology and the Bible.

He respected the stories, was not reductionist, and never claimed to exhaust their wisdom. If he discussed a topic such as prejudice, or its emotional relatives fear and disgust, or the differences between the sexes on average, he was able to show how these traits evolved and why they survived. Above all, he alerted his students to topics rarely discussed in university, such as the simple fact that all the ancients, from Buddha to the biblical authors, knew what every slightly worn-out adult knows, that life is suffering.

And chances are, if you or someone you love is not suffering now, they will be within five years, unless you are freakishly lucky. Rearing kids is hard, work is hard, aging, sickness and death are hard, and Jordan emphasized that doing all that totally on your own, without the benefit of a loving relationship, or wisdom, or the psychological insights of the greatest psychologists, only makes it harder. Here he would relate the myth of the hero, a cross-cultural theme explored psychoanalytically by Otto Rank, who noted, following Freud, that hero myths are similar in many cultures, a theme that was picked up by Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell and Erich Neumann, among others. Where Freud made great contributions in explaining neuroses by, among other things, focusing on understanding what we might call a failed-hero story that of Oedipus , Jordan focused on triumphant heroes.

In all these triumph stories, the hero has to go into the unknown, into an unexplored territory, and deal with a new great challenge and take great risks. In the process, something of himself has to die, or be given up, so he can be reborn and meet the challenge. This requires courage, something rarely discussed in a psychology class or textbook. Nonetheless, I saw him and Tammy, for that matter not only display such courage, but also continue to live by many of the rules in this book, some of which can be very demanding.

I saw him grow, from the remarkable person he was, into someone even more able and assured—through living by these rules. In fact, it was the process of writing this book, and developing these rules, that led him to take the stand he did against forced or compelled speech. And that is why, during those events, he started posting some of his thoughts about life and these rules on the internet. Now, over million YouTube hits later, we know they have struck a chord. Given our distaste for rules, how do we explain the extraordinary response to his lectures, which give rules?

But people have kept listening because what he is saying meets a deep and unarticulated need. And that is because alongside our wish to be free of rules, we all search for structure. The hunger among many younger people for rules, or at least guidelines, is greater today for good reason. In the West at least, millennials are living through a unique historical situation. They are, I believe, the first generation to have been so thoroughly taught two seemingly contradictory ideas about morality, simultaneously—at their schools, colleges and universities, by many in my own generation. According to this argument now a creed , history teaches that religions, tribes, nations and ethnic groups tend to disagree about fundamental matters, and always have.

Millennials, often told they have received the finest education available anywhere, have actually suffered a form of serious intellectual and moral neglect. The study of virtue is not quite the same as the study of morals right and wrong, good and evil. Vice was defined as the ways of behaving least conducive to happiness. He observed that the virtues always aim for balance and avoid the extremes of the vices. Aristotle studied the virtues and the vices in his Nicomachean Ethics. It was a book based on experience and observation, not conjecture, about the kind of happiness that was possible for human beings.

Cultivating judgment about the difference between virtue and vice is the beginning of wisdom, something that can never be out of date. By contrast, our modern relativism begins by asserting that making judgments about how to live is impossible, because there is no real good, and no true virtue as these too are relative. On Facebook and other forms of social media, therefore, you signal your so-called virtue, telling everyone how tolerant, open and compassionate you are, and wait for likes to accumulate.

Virtue signalling is not virtue. Virtue signalling is, quite possibly, our commonest vice. But it turns out that many people cannot tolerate the vacuum—the chaos— which is inherent in life, but made worse by this moral relativism; they cannot live without a moral compass, without an ideal at which to aim in their lives. So, right alongside relativism, we find the spread of nihilism and despair, and also the opposite of moral relativism: the blind certainty offered by ideologies that claim to have an answer for everything. And so we arrive at the second teaching that millennials have been bombarded with. They sign up for a humanities course, to study greatest books ever written. Where the relativist is filled with uncertainty, the ideologue is the very opposite.

Sometimes it seems the only people willing to give advice in a relativistic society are those with the least to offer. Modern moral relativism has many sources. As we in the West learned more history, we understood that different epochs had different moral codes. As we travelled the seas and explored the globe, we learned of far-flung tribes on different continents whose different moral codes made sense relative to, or within the framework of, their societies. Science played a role, too, by attacking the religious view of the world, and thus undermining the religious grounds for ethics and rules. Then we could first agree on the facts, and, maybe, one day, develop a scientific code of ethics which has yet to arrive. The idea that different societies had different rules and morals was known to the ancient world too, and it is interesting to compare its response to this realization with the modern response relativism, nihilism and ideology.

When the ancient Greeks sailed to India and elsewhere, they too discovered that rules, morals and customs differed from place to place, and saw that the explanation for what was right and wrong was often rooted in some ancestral authority. The Greek response was not despair, but a new invention: philosophy. Socrates, reacting to the uncertainty bred by awareness of these conflicting moral codes, decided that instead of becoming a nihilist, a relativist or an ideologue, he would devote his life to the search for wisdom that could reason about these differences, i.

These are the kinds of questions that I believe animate this book. For the ancients, the discovery that different people have different ideas about how, practically, to live, did not paralyze them; it deepened their understanding of humanity and led to some of the most satisfying conversations human beings have ever had, about how life might be lived. Likewise, Aristotle. Instead of despairing about these differences in moral codes, Aristotle argued that though specific rules, laws and customs differed from place to place, what does not differ is that in all places human beings, by their nature, have a proclivity to make rules, laws and customs.

The idea that human life can be free of moral concerns is a fantasy. We are rule generators. And given that we are moral animals, what must be the effect of our simplistic modern relativism upon us? It means we are hobbling ourselves by pretending to be something we are not. It is a mask, but a strange one, for it mostly deceives the one who wears it. Because we do not yet have an ethics based on modern science, Jordan is not trying to develop his rules by wiping the slate clean—by dismissing thousands of years of wisdom as mere superstition and ignoring our greatest moral achievements. He is doing what reasonable guides have always done: he makes no claim that human wisdom begins with himself, but, rather, turns first to his own guides.

And although the topics in this book are serious, Jordan often has great fun addressing them with a light touch, as the chapter headings convey. He makes no claim to be exhaustive, and sometimes the chapters consist of wide-ranging discussions of our psychology as he understands it. Because these really are rules. And the foremost rule is that you must take responsibility for your own life.

One might think that a generation that has heard endlessly, from their more ideological teachers, about the rights, rights, rights that belong to them, would object to being told that they would do better to focus instead on taking responsibility. The extent of this reaction has often moved both of us to the brink of tears. Sometimes these rules are demanding. They require you to undertake an incremental process that over time will stretch you to a new limit.

And perhaps because, as unfamiliar and strange as it sounds, in the deepest part of our psyche, we all want to be judged. In , I started contributing to a website called Quora. On Quora, anyone can ask a question, of any sort—and anyone can answer. In this manner, the most useful answers rise to the top, while the others sink into oblivion. I was curious about the site. I liked its free-for-all nature. The discussion was often compelling, and it was interesting to see the diverse range of opinions generated by the same question. When I was taking a break or avoiding work , I often turned to Quora, looking for questions to engage with. Thus, you can determine your reach, and see what people think of your ideas.

Only a small minority of those who view an answer upvote it. Not exactly home runs. On such sites, most answers receive very little attention, while a tiny minority become disproportionately popular. The Quora readers appeared pleased with this list. They commented on and shared it. Only a few hundred of the roughly six hundred thousand questions on Quora have cracked the two- thousand-upvote barrier.

My procrastination-induced musings hit a nerve. I had written a It was not obvious to me when I wrote the list of rules for living that it was going to perform so well. I had put a fair bit of care into all the sixty or so answers I submitted in the few months surrounding that post. Nonetheless, Quora provides market research at its finest. The respondents are anonymous. Their opinions are spontaneous and unbiased. Perhaps I struck the right balance between the familiar and the unfamiliar while formulating the rules.

Perhaps people were drawn to the structure that such rules imply. Perhaps people just like lists. A few months earlier, in March of , I had received an email from a literary agent. She had heard me speak on CBC radio during a show entitled Just Say No to Happiness, where I had criticized the idea that happiness was the proper goal for life. Over the previous decades I had read more than my share of dark books about the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

On the radio show, I suggested, instead, that a deeper meaning was required. I noted that the nature of such meaning was constantly re-presented in the great stories of the past, and that it had more to do with developing character in the face of suffering than with happiness. This is part of the long history of the present work. From until I worked for about three hours a day on the only other book I have ever published: Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief. During that time, and in the years since, I also taught a course on the material in that book, first at Harvard, and now at the University of Toronto. In , observing the rise of YouTube, and because of the popularity of some work I had done with TVO, a Canadian public TV station, I decided to film my university and public lectures and place them online.

The number of views has risen very dramatically since then up to eighteen million as I write this , but that is in part because I became embroiled in a political controversy that drew an inordinate amount of attention. Maybe even another book. I proposed in Maps of Meaning that the great myths and religious stories of the past, particularly those derived from an earlier, oral tradition, were moral in their intent, rather than descriptive. Thus, they did not concern themselves with what the world was, as a scientist might have it, but with how a human being should act.

I suggested that our ancestors portrayed the world as a stage—a drama—instead of a place of objects. I described how I had come to believe that the constituent elements of the world as drama were order and chaos, and not material things. Order is where the people around you act according to well-understood social norms, and remain predictable and cooperative. The state of Order is typically portrayed, symbolically—imaginatively—as masculine. Chaos, by contrast, is where—or when—something unexpected happens.

Chaos emerges, in trivial form, when you tell a joke at a party with people you think you know and a silent and embarrassing chill falls over the gathering. Chaos is what emerges more catastrophically when you suddenly find yourself without employment, or are betrayed by a lover. Order and chaos are the yang and yin of the famous Taoist symbol: two serpents, head to tail. Order is the white, masculine serpent; Chaos, its black, fn1 feminine counterpart. The black dot in the white—and the white in the black— indicate the possibility of transformation: just when things seem secure, the unknown can loom, unexpectedly and large.

Conversely, just when everything seems lost, new order can emerge from catastrophe and chaos. For the Taoists, meaning is to be found on the border between the ever- entwined pair. To walk that border is to stay on the path of life, the divine Way. It left her asking herself deeper questions. I had previously attempted to produce a more accessible version of Maps of Meaning, which is a very dense book. But I found that the spirit was neither in me during that attempt nor in the resultant manuscript.

I think this was because I was imitating my former self, and my previous book, instead of occupying the place between order and chaos and producing something new. I thought if she did that we could have a more informed and thorough discussion about what kind of topics I might address in a more publicly accessible book. She contacted me a few weeks later, after watching all four lectures and discussing them with a colleague. Her interest had been further heightened, as had her commitment to the project. That was promising—and unexpected. You can decide for yourself what truth there might be in that concern after reading this book.

I thought immediately about my Quora list. I had in the meantime written some further thoughts about of the rules I had posted. People had responded positively toward those new ideas, as well. So, I sent her the list. She liked it. At about the same time, a friend and former student of mine—the novelist and screenwriter Gregg Hurwitz—was considering a new book, which would become the bestselling thriller Orphan X.

He liked the rules, too. That was another piece of evidence supporting my supposition of their attractiveness. I suggested to my agent that I write a brief chapter on each of the rules. She agreed, so I wrote a book proposal suggesting as much. I had much more to say about each rule than I originally envisioned. This was partly because I had spent a very long time researching my first book: studying history, mythology, neuroscience, psychoanalysis, child psychology, poetry, and large sections of the Bible.

I integrated all of that, for better or worse, trying to address a perplexing problem: the reason or reasons for the nuclear standoff of the Cold War. People who live by the same code are rendered mutually predictable to one another. They can cooperate. They can even compete peacefully, because everyone knows what to expect from everyone else. A shared belief system, partly psychological, partly acted out, simplifies everyone—in their own eyes, and in the eyes of others. Shared beliefs simplify the world, as well, because people who know what to expect from one another can act together to tame the world. There is perhaps nothing more important than the maintenance of this organization—this simplification. They will fight, instead, to maintain the match between what they believe, what they expect, and what they desire.

They will fight to maintain the match between what they expect and how everyone is acting. It is precisely the maintenance of that match that enables everyone to live together peacefully, predictably and productively. It reduces uncertainty and the chaotic mix of intolerable emotions that uncertainty inevitably produces. Imagine someone betrayed by a trusted lover. The sacred social contract obtaining between the two has been violated. Actions speak louder than words, and an act of betrayal disrupts the fragile and carefully negotiated peace of an intimate relationship. In the aftermath of disloyalty, people are seized by terrible emotions: disgust, contempt for self and traitor , guilt, anxiety, rage and dread.

Conflict is inevitable, sometimes with deadly results. Shared belief systems— shared systems of agreed-upon conduct and expectation—regulate and control all those powerful forces. A shared cultural system stabilizes human interaction, but is also a system of value—a hierarchy of value, where some things are given priority and importance and others are not. In the absence of such a system of value, people simply cannot act. We experience much of our positive emotion in relation to goals. Worse yet is the fact that the meaning of life without positive value is not simply neutral. Because we are vulnerable and mortal, pain and anxiety are an integral part of human existence.

We must have something to set against the suffering that is intrinsic to Being. We must have fn2 the meaning inherent in a profound system of value or the horror of existence rapidly becomes paramount. Then, nihilism beckons, with its hopelessness and despair. So: no value, no meaning. Between value systems, however, there is the possibility of conflict. We are thus eternally caught between the most diamantine rock and the hardest of places: loss of group-centred belief renders life chaotic, miserable, intolerable; presence of group-centred belief makes conflict with other groups inevitable.

In the West, we have been withdrawing from our tradition-, religion- and even nation-centred cultures, partly to decrease the danger of group conflict. But we are increasingly falling prey to the desperation of meaninglessness, and that is no improvement at all. While writing Maps of Meaning, I was also driven by the realization that we can no longer afford conflict—certainly not on the scale of the world conflagrations of the twentieth century. Our technologies of destruction have become too powerful. The potential consequences of war are literally apocalyptic. But we cannot simply abandon our systems of value, our beliefs, our cultures, either. I agonized over this apparently intractable problem for months. Was there a third way, invisible to me?

I dreamt one night during this period that I was suspended in mid-air, clinging to a chandelier, many stories above the ground, directly under the dome of a massive cathedral. The people on the floor below were distant and tiny. There was a great expanse between me and any wall—and even the peak of the dome itself. I have learned to pay attention to dreams, not least because of my training as a clinical psychologist. Dreams shed light on the dim places where reason itself has yet to voyage. I have studied Christianity a fair bit, too more than other religious traditions, although I am always trying to redress this lack.

Like others, therefore, I must and do draw more from what I do know than from what I do not. I knew that cathedrals were constructed in the shape of a cross, and that the point under the dome was the centre of the cross. I knew that the cross was simultaneously, the point of greatest suffering, the point of death and transformation, and the symbolic centre of the world. That was not somewhere I wanted to be. I managed to get down, out of the heights—out of the symbolic sky—back to safe, familiar, anonymous ground. Then, still in my dream, I returned to my bedroom and my bed and tried to return to sleep and the peace of unconsciousness.

A great wind was dissolving me, preparing to propel me back to the cathedral, to place me once again at that central point. There was no escape. It was a true nightmare. I forced myself awake. The curtains behind me were blowing in over my pillows. Half asleep, I looked at the foot of the bed. I saw the great cathedral doors. I shook myself completely awake and they disappeared. My dream placed me at the centre of Being itself, and there was no escape.

It took me months to understand what this meant. During this time, I came to a more complete, personal realization of what the great stories of the past continually insist upon: the centre is occupied by the individual. The centre is marked by the cross, as X marks the spot. Existence at that cross is suffering and transformation—and that fact, above all, needs to be voluntarily accepted. It is possible to transcend slavish adherence to the group and its doctrines and, simultaneously, to avoid the pitfalls of its opposite extreme, nihilism.

It is possible, instead, to find sufficient meaning in individual consciousness and experience. How could the world be freed from the terrible dilemma of conflict, on the one hand, and psychological and social dissolution, on the other? The answer was this: through the elevation and development of the individual, and through the willingness of everyone to shoulder the burden of Being and to take the heroic path.

We must each adopt as much responsibility as possible for individual life, society and the world. We must each tell the truth and repair what is in disrepair and break down and recreate what is old and outdated. It is in this manner that we can and must reduce the suffering that poisons the world. But the alternative—the horror of authoritarian belief, the chaos of the collapsed state, the tragic catastrophe of the unbridled natural world, the existential angst and weakness of the purposeless individual—is clearly worse.

I have been thinking and lecturing about such ideas for decades. I have built up a large corpus of stories and concepts pertaining to them. I am not for a moment claiming, however, that I am entirely correct or complete in my thinking. In any case, the consequence of all that previous research and thinking was the new essays which eventually became this book. My initial idea was to write a short essay on all forty of the answers I had provided to Quora. That proposal was accepted by Penguin Random House Canada. While writing, however, I cut the essay number to twenty-five and then to sixteen and then finally, to the current twelve.

Why did that one rise up above all others? First and foremost, because of its simplicity. It indicates clearly that people need ordering principles, and that chaos otherwise beckons. We require rules, standards, values—alone and together. We must bear a load, to justify our miserable existence. We require routine and tradition. We need to stay on the straight and narrow path. Each of the twelve rules of this book—and their accompanying essays— therefore provide a guide to being there. Perhaps, if we lived properly, we would be able to tolerate the weight of our own self- consciousness. Perhaps, if we lived properly, we could withstand the knowledge of our own fragility and mortality, without the sense of aggrieved victimhood that produces, first, resentment, then envy, and then the desire for vengeance and destruction.

Perhaps we could come to avoid those pathways to Hell—and we have seen in the terrible twentieth century just how real Hell can be. I hope that these rules and their accompanying essays will help people understand what they already know: that the soul of the individual eternally hungers for the heroism of genuine Being, and that the willingness to take on that responsibility is identical to the decision to live a meaningful life. If we each live properly, we will collectively flourish. Best wishes to you all, as you proceed through these pages. However, these interesting and delicious crustaceans are very much worth considering. Their nervous systems are comparatively simple, with large, easily observable neurons, the magic cells of the brain.

Because of this, scientists have been able to map the neural circuitry of lobsters very accurately. This has helped us understand the structure and function of the brain and behaviour of more complex animals, including human beings. Lobsters have more in common with you than you might think particularly when you are feeling crabby—ha ha. Lobsters live on the ocean floor. They need a home base down there, a range within which they hunt for prey and scavenge around for stray edible bits and pieces of whatever rains down from the continual chaos of carnage and death far above.

They want somewhere secure, where the hunting and the gathering is good. They want a home. This can present a problem, since there are many lobsters. What if two of them occupy the same territory, at the bottom of the ocean, at the same time, and both want to live there? What if there are hundreds of lobsters, all trying to make a living and raise a family, in the same crowded patch of sand and refuse? Other creatures have this problem, too. When songbirds come north in the spring, for example, they engage in ferocious territorial disputes. The songs they sing, so peaceful and beautiful to human ears, are siren calls and cries of domination. A brilliantly musical bird is a small warrior proclaiming his sovereignty.

Take the wren, for example, a small, feisty, insect-eating songbird common in North America. A newly arrived wren wants a sheltered place to build a nest, away from the wind and rain. He wants it close to food, and attractive to potential mates. He also wants to convince competitors for that space to keep their distance. Birds—and Territory My dad and I designed a house for a wren family when I was ten years old.

It looked like a Conestoga wagon, and had a front entrance about the size of a quarter. My elderly neighbour had a birdhouse, too, which we built for her at the same time, from an old rubber boot. It had an opening large enough for a bird the size of a robin. She was looking forward to the day it was occupied. A wren soon discovered our birdhouse, and made himself at home there. We could hear his lengthy, trilling song, repeated over and over, during the early spring. He packed it so full that no other bird, large or small, could possibly get in. Our neighbour was not pleased by this pre-emptive strike, but there was nothing to be done about it. I had broken my leg skiing the previous winter—first time down the hill—and had received some money from a school insurance policy designed to reward unfortunate, clumsy children.

I purchased a cassette recorder a high-tech novelty at the time with the proceeds. So, I went out into the bright spring sunlight and taped a few minutes of the wren laying furious claim to his territory with song. Then I let him hear his own voice. That little bird, one-third the size of a sparrow, began to dive-bomb me and my cassette recorder, swooping back and forth, inches from the speaker. We saw a lot of that sort of behaviour, even in the absence of the tape recorder.

Now, wrens and lobsters are very different. Lobsters do not fly, sing or perch in trees. Wrens have feathers, not hard shells. However, they are also similar in important ways. Both are obsessed with status and position, for example, like a great many creatures. The birds that always have priority access to whatever food is sprinkled out in the yard in the morning are the celebrity chickens. After them come the second- stringers, the hangers-on and wannabes. Then the third-rate chickens have their turn, and so on, down to the bedraggled, partially-feathered and badly-pecked wretches who occupy the lowest, untouchable stratum of the chicken hierarchy.

Chickens, like suburbanites, live communally. Songbirds, such as wrens, do not, but they still inhabit a dominance hierarchy. The wiliest, strongest, healthiest and most fortunate birds occupy prime territory, and defend it.

Medical control is on-lineimmediate, and direct. Diversity 3. The environment—the nature that selects—itself transforms. Internist Reflection Essay University of California Press; Thinking back to your own solitude-poem to applying to medical school, what is a Internist Reflection Essay experience or mentorship moment that was most formative to Internist Reflection Essay progression so far? Please Internist Reflection Essay how your values and attitudes will foster a positive learning Internist Reflection Essay during your training and benefit your future Internist Reflection Essay The Sirens: A Short Story the practice Salman Rushdie Sanders Summary medicine. Much Internist Reflection Essay, Gizabeth.

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