✎✎✎ The Confederate Flag
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The Complicated History Of The Confederate Flag - Time Capsule
Because the school had acted under the auspices of a well-defined policy designed to prohibit racial harassment and to minimize disruption of the educational environment for other students, the court found that the policy did not limit protected speech. Other challenges to school policies have yielded similar rulings. In Walker v. Tex Div. Supreme Court ruled that Texas did not violate the First Amendment by refusing to allow a specialty license plate designed by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans and featuring the Confederate Battle Flag.
A number of institutions have subsequently renamed buildings that referenced Southern Civil War figures, and some cities, most notably New Orleans, have removed statues and monuments to Confederate war heroes. This article first published in and has been updated. The primary contributor, Sara L. It has been updated by the First Amendment Encyclopedia. Coski, John M. Cambridge, Mass. Prince, K. Rally Round the Flag, Boys! South Carolina and the Confederate Flag. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, Sansing, David. Glum, Julia. Immediately, he saw trucks flying both flags, which he says go "hand in hand," and more Trump flags for sale on the side of the road. Holloway, a car enthusiast and videographer who lives in New Orleans, said he has attended Cruisin' for five years, and was the first time he had seen so many flags.
He attributed it to the presidential election, which was held about a month after Cruisin' And Mississippi's retiring of the state flag with the Confederate battle flag emblem could also have made people "a little bit more rebellious," he said. This year, with the election over and the new Magnolia flag flying over Mississippi, he and other attendees and some Coast residents wonder if flags associated with right-wing political views will be back, perhaps becoming a permanent fixture of Cruisin' in the age of Trump. Society as a whole is becoming political. The country's becoming divided. I'm concentrating on running the event. Established in , the growth of Cruisin' has coincided with a national debate over the proper place of Confederate symbols in American public life.
That debate heated up after Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin killed a Black man named George Floyd, sparking some of the largest protests in American history. The Mississippi Legislature voted to retire the state flag in June. Later that summer in Gulfport, protesters, counter-protesters and white nationalist militia members wearing bullet-proof vests and carrying guns clashed during a demonstration asking Harrison County supervisors to remove the Confederate monument from courthouse grounds. By the time Cruisin' arrived in October, groups such as the Sons of Confederate Veterans had launched an initiative to build new monuments and gather public support for their cause.
Ugh," one reviewer wrote on Yelp in She gave Cruisin' two stars. Some observers have pointed to the disparate receptions of Cruisin' and Black Spring Break as an indication of racial injustice on the Coast. She had a great time checking out the cars, meeting new people, and eating at restaurants on Beach Boulevard. To Brown, who is Black and has lived in Mississippi all her life, the Confederate flag carries "so much history. Some groups use the "southern cross" as one of the symbols associated with their organizations, including groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. For other supporters, the Confederate flag represents only a past era of Southern sovereignty. Historian John Coski noted that the Sons of Confederate Veterans , the "most visible, active, and effective defender of the flag", "carried forward into the twenty-first century, virtually unchanged, the Lost Cause historical interpretations and ideological vision formulated at the turn of the twentieth.
From the SCV spokesmen reiterated the consistent argument that the South fought a legitimate war for independence, not a war to defend slavery, and that the ascendant "Yankee" view of history falsely vilified the South and led people to misinterpret the battle flag. The allied United Daughters of the Confederacy and other historical societies also used the flag as part of their symbols.
In Petersburg, Virginia , the Ladies Memorial Association of Petersburg in had a Tiffany stained-glass Confederate flag included in a window over the door to the former Blandford Church. At its annual meeting In , the Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution calling for Southern Baptist churches to stop displaying the Confederate flag, as a "sign of solidarity of the whole Body of Christ. The Confederate flag is a controversial symbol for many Americans today.
A similar poll taken in revealed little change from As a result of these varying perceptions, there have been a number of political controversies surrounding the use of the Confederate battle flag in Southern state flags , at sporting events, at Southern universities, and on public buildings. The battle flag was never adopted by the Confederate Congress, never flew over any state capitols during the Confederacy, and was never officially used by Confederate veterans' groups.
The flag probably would have been relegated to Civil War museums if it had not been resurrected by the resurgent KKK and used by Southern Dixiecrats during the presidential election. It is no accident that Confederate symbols have been the mainstay of white supremacist organizations, from the Ku Klux Klan to the skinheads. They did not appropriate the Confederate battle flag simply because it was pretty. They picked it because it was the flag of a nation dedicated to their ideals: ' that the negro is not equal to the white man '.
The Confederate flag, we are told, represents heritage, not hate. But why should we celebrate a heritage grounded in hate, a heritage whose self-avowed reason for existence was the exploitation and debasement of a sizeable segment of its population? Symbols of the Confederacy remain a contentious issue across the United States and their civic placement has been debated vigorously in many southern U.
In a essay, "Old Times There Are Best Forgotten", Emory University professor Lucas Carpenter observed that "Contemporary Confederate sympathizers want free use of Confederate symbolism because they say it represents their 'heritage. The most important thing to know about the South is that until recently it was a region ruled by slavery and apartheid. The Anti-Defamation League says the flag is "still used by non-extremists, especially in the South, as a symbol of Southern heritage or history.
The flag has found some popularity in places far outside of the former Confederacy, especially in rural areas in the United States. When researching his ethnography of white Americans, Searching for Whitopia , scholar Rich Benjamin kept a notepad while traveling the Pacific Northwest. Calls for the removal of Confederate flags from Jefferson Davis Park in southwestern Washington state began in , after the Charleston church shooting , by Rev. Their visibility, and events in other parts of the nation regarding Confederate memorials , still make these symbols a local focus of strong emotions, especially in the aftermath of the white nationalist Unite the Right rally August 11—12, In a "limited" degree of reciprocity with its use beside the First Amendment -protected display of Nazi flags at far-right events within the United States, there has increasingly been seen at far-right group gatherings within some European nations' borders, the use of the rectangular "rebel flag" form of the Confederate naval jack, in place of often-banned Third Reich flags.
Washington Post reporter Adam Taylor, in an article of June 22, about use of Confederate flag in Italy, reports that the first time S. Napoli supporters were noticed flying the flag abroad was during their quarterfinal match of the UEFA Champions League against English side Chelsea in He quotes an explanation, given several years before to historian Don Harrison Doyle and reported in "Divided Nations" by a professor of American Literature in Naples: "We too are a defeated people.
Once we were a rich and independent country, and then they came from the North and conquered us and took our wealth and power away to Rome. For Napoli FC supporters, [ The film Smokey and the Bandit , set in the Southern United States, featured a Pontiac Trans Am displaying the Georgia state flag on the front license plate of the vehicle; the Georgia state flag prominently featured the Confederate battle flag. The — American television series The Dukes of Hazzard , set in a fictional Georgia county, featured the General Lee stock car with the flag prominently painted over its roof throughout the series' run. The film Battle Beyond the Stars shows a spaceship used to haul freight piloted by a man calling himself Cowboy.
The space truck sports a rectangular variant of the Mobile Depot flag. The film The Breakfast Club has a portrayal of the Georgia state flag which incorporates the battle flag design. Kelly in the — television sitcom Married The film Shag has a character wearing wearing a flag bikini. The Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd has made heavy use of the flag. They tried distancing themselves from it because of its divisive history as a symbol of racism in In an interview with CNN , Gary Rossington stated, "We just had it in the beginning because we're Southern and that was our image back in the '70s and late '60s.
But I think people through the years, people like the KKK and the skinheads…kidnapped the Dixie rebel flag, the Southern tradition and the heritage of the soldiers, you know, that's what it was about. We didn't want that to go to our fans or show the image like we agreed with any of the race stuff or any of the bad things. Metal band Pantera sold numerous items in their official online store that featured the flag until July As of July , singer Phil Anselmo distanced himself from usage of the flag.
Rockabilly musician Ray Campi played an upright bass with a customized image of the flag on the back of the instrument. At some point prior to , he changed the image to the Texan flag. Southern rocker Tom Petty used the Confederate flag in his Southern Accents tour, tying its imagery to the lead character in his song " Rebels ". In , he declaimed his use of the flag as "downright stupid," saying "It's like how a swastika looks to a Jewish person. Despite hailing from Michigan, singer Kid Rock prominently displayed the Confederate flag on his tours starting with his album Cocky , but by had quietly abandoned the flag.
Instrumental guitarist Duane Eddy , along with his backing band, "The Rebels," used the Confederate flag and symbolism during his early career. In December , Twitch announced a new policy towards harassment and hateful content, to take effect on January 22, , aimed to better protect marginalized users of the service. While the new policy is more strict, Twitch said that this also includes a larger sliding scale of remedies or punishments to better deal with edge cases, such as temporarily blocking one's channel for a short time rather than a full ban. The new policy includes a ban on imagery containing the Confederate flag. On February 16, , University of Mississippi campus police discovered the James Meredith memorial statue, erected in October , surrounded with pre Georgia State Flags containing the Confederate Flag and a rope tied into a noose around the neck of the statue.
Meredith, an alumnus of the University of Mississippi, was, in October , the first African American to attend the school. Harris pleaded guilty in June to a misdemeanor for using threat of force to intimidate African-American students and employees. District Judge Michael P. Mills sentenced Harris to six months in prison, followed by twelve months of supervision after release. On May 19, , the United States House of Representatives voted to ban the display of Confederate flags on flagpoles at Veterans Administration cemeteries, by a — vote.
The ban was contained in an amendment House Amendment , th Congress to House bill , an appropriations bill. In June , Republicans in Congress attempted to attach an amendment to a bill funding the fight against the Zika virus epidemic that would have reversed the flag ban. It was just one provision of several that Republicans had attached, including an amendment cutting Planned Parenthood funding. Senate Democrats blocked the bill through filibuster.
In August , in response to the controversial Unite the Right rally that was held in Charlottesville , the park Six Flags Over Texas replaced its six flags which had included the first Confederate flag with six American flags. A representative of the park told KXAS-TV , "We always choose to focus on celebrating the things that unite us versus those that divide us. As such, we have changed the flag displays in our park to feature American flags.
On September 27, , ten Confederate flag posters bearing chunks of cotton were found on the campus of American University. The date coincided with the presentation by historian Ibram Kendi to introduce the Anti-racist Research and Policy Center. On December 15, , the State of New York passed a law "to prohibit the sale or display of hate symbols in public buildings and public grounds including state and local fairs, unless serving an educational or historical purpose.
In the years after the end of the American Civil War, many former slave states that were members of the Confederacy during the war adopted new state flags. Incorporating in their new flags' designs were motifs that were used in the Confederacy's flags, such as the St. Andrew's cross. In the case of Mississippi , Florida, and Alabama these new state flags were adopted around the same time that new Jim Crow segregation laws were being enacted. These laws, combined with poll taxes , literacy tests , and extrajudicial violence such as lynchings , disenfranchised African American voters for the next ninety years.
The flag changes in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida coincided with the passage of formal Jim Crow segregation laws throughout the South. Four years before Mississippi incorporated a Confederate battle flag into its state flag, its constitutional convention passed pioneering provisions to 'reform' politics by effectively disenfranchising most African Americans. The current Flag of Alabama the second in Alabama state history was adopted by Act of the Alabama state legislature on February 16, .
The flag of the State of Alabama shall be a crimson cross of St. Andrew on a field of white. The bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side. An article in the October National Geographic magazine posited that "the purpose in inacting the state flag law was to preserve in permanent form some of the distinctive features of the Confederate Battle Flag. The flag of Arkansas contains four blue stars within a diamond representing the four countries that historically controlled the territory; one of these stars represents the Confederate States of America. The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in , with minor changes in , contains the Cross of Burgundy. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.
Fleming , a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation. However, some historians believe the flag dates back to the original flag the Spanish flew over Florida in the 16th century. In the Georgian state flag was redesigned to incorporate the Confederate battle flag. Following protests over this aspect of the design in the s by the NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and other groups, efforts began in the Georgia General Assembly to remove the battle flag from the state flag's design.
These efforts succeeded in January when Georgia Governor Roy Barnes introduced a design that, though continuing to depict the Battle Flag, greatly reduced its prominence. The following year, amidst dwindling demands for the return of the design "Battle Flag" version and lesser opposing demands for the continued use of the new "Barnes'" design, the Georgia General Assembly redesigned the flag yet again; it adopted a "compromise" design using the star First National Flag of the Confederacy the "Stars and Bars" , combined with a simplified version of Georgia's state seal placed within the circle of 13 stars on the flag's canton.
The city flag of Trenton, Georgia , United States, was adopted in as a protest following the change of the state flag of Georgia. The flag has been controversial because it incorporates the Confederate Battle Flag. The Confederate battle flag became a part of the flag of Mississippi in In , the flag statutes were omitted by error from the new legal code of the state, leaving Mississippi without an official flag. The omission was not discovered until , when a lawsuit filed by the NAACP regarding the flag was being reviewed by the Supreme Court of Mississippi.
In , Governor Ronnie Musgrove issued an executive order making the flag official, which it did in February After continued controversy, the decision was turned over to citizens of the state, who, on April 17, , voted to keep the Confederate Battle Flag a part of the current state flag. During the George Floyd protests , more discussion about changing the flag was held, with legislation being introduced into the state legislature.
The first flag of North Carolina which was adopted in had two ribbons. On one of the ribbons is emblazoned " May 20th, ". The other one had the inscription "May 20, ". The new flag which was adopted in has a modified design with other colors and the date of the North Carolina's secession was replaced by " April 12, ". Although the symbolism is reported as referencing only the State of Tennessee, its color scheme, symbolism, and design evoke the flags of the Confederacy. The red field and blue charge with white fimbriation evoke the Confederate Battle Flag, and the placement of the vertical bar at the fly of the field evokes the Third National Flag of the Confederacy.
Andrew of the Confederate Battle Flag. Vexillologist Steven A. Knowlton, an assistant professor and collection development librarian of the University Libraries of the University of Memphis,  believes the relationship of the current Tennessee State Flag and the flags of the Confederacy is one of "pragmatic unity" with a "deeper symbolic recognition" linking it to the Confederacy.
Stone Mountain , Georgia, is a "monument to the Confederacy"  that was paid for and is owned by the state of Georgia. Stone Mountain Park opened years to the day after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Four flags of the Confederacy are flown at Stone Mountain. Each terrace flies the flag that the state flew as member of the Confederacy. The first Confederate flag, together with five other nations that have had sovereignty over Texas Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, United States appear above one of the side entrances to the Capitol. They also appear on the reverse of the Seal of Texas , which is the subject of a floor mosaic in the Capitol Extension. The reverse of the seal was proposed by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas and approved by the Texas Legislature and Governor in , modified in The Alabamian coat of arms features the Confederate battle flag's saltire in its design.
Similar to Texas, the saltire on the coat of arms represents one of the five countries which have held sovereignty over part or all of Alabama. The shield of the Confederacy was found in the Rotunda of the Florida Capitol , together with those of France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States — all of them treated equally as "nations" that Florida was part of or governed by. The five flags "that have flown in Florida" were included on the official Senate seal, displayed prominently in the Senate chambers, on its stationery, and throughout the Capitol.
On October 19, , the Senate agreed to change the seal so as to remove the Confederate battle flag from it. In Alabama , Georgia , Louisiana , Mississippi , North Carolina , South Carolina , and Tennessee , vehicle owners can request a state-issued license plate featuring the Sons of Confederate Veterans logo, which incorporates the square Confederate battle flag. In , a North Carolina appellate court upheld the issuance of such license plates in the case Sons of Confederate v. DMV , noting: "We are aware of the sensitivity of many of our citizens to the display of the Confederate flag.
Whether the display of the Confederate flag on state-issued license plates represents sound public policy is not an issue presented to this Court in this case. That is an issue for our General Assembly. In , the dispute over Texas vanity plates that would have displayed the logo ended up before the United States Supreme Court. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans , the court ruled that license plates are governmental speech, so the government may decide what to have printed on them. Texas's refusal to issue flag-emblazoned license plates therefore didn't violate petitioners' right to free speech. In , Virginia recalled its vanity plates with the Confederate flag emblem pictured within the logo of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.
The old design with the emblem was invalidated and driving with such Virginia tags was made a misdemeanor similar to driving an unlicensed vehicle, though in October a SCV legal team tried fighting the ban in court. The Confederate battle flag was raised over the State House on April 11, , at the request of Representative John May , [ citation needed ] ostensibly as a part of opening celebrations of the Confederate War Centennial , according to Dr. Daniel Hollis, an appointed member of the centennial commission. Many historians point out that the appearance of the flag likely had a more nefarious purpose: to symbolize Southern defiance in the face of a burgeoning Civil Rights Movement.
In March , lawmakers passed a resolution directing the flag be flown over the State House. On April 12, , the South Carolina State Senate passed a bill to remove the Confederate flag from the top of the State House dome by a majority vote of 36 to 7. On May 18, , after the bill was modified to ensure that the height of the flag's new pole would be 30 feet 9 m , it was passed by a majority of 66 to On July 1, , the flag was removed from atop the State House by two students one white and one black from The Citadel ;  Civil War re-enactors then raised a Confederate battle flag on a foot pole on the front lawn of the Capitol  next to a slightly taller monument honoring Confederate soldiers  who died during the Civil War.
State law prohibited the flag's removal from the State House grounds without additional legislation. The NAACP maintained an official economic boycott of South Carolina for 15 years, citing the state's continued display of the battle flag, until the flag was eventually removed completely from the State House grounds. In , the National Collegiate Athletic Association "announced that it will cancel future Association-sponsored events in South Carolina if that state doesn't take action to remove the Confederate battle flag from atop its state capitol.
In both and , the school hosted the postseason Pioneer Bowl game, in violation of the NCAA ban, though no action was taken. In June , Bree Newsome , filmmaker and activist, climbed the flagpole and removed the flag in the wake of the Charleston church shooting. Dueling groups have been competing over the issue of what commemoration of the flag, if any, should by held on the anniversaries of its removal on July After , the South Carolina Secessionist Party has sometimes raised the flag on a temporary flagpole at the capitol on July 10, to mark the anniversary of the flag's removal. Protestors far ounumbered the two dozen flag supporters. A Confederate flag flies on the grounds of the Marion County Courthouse.
From to late , the town of Remington, Virginia , had a Confederate flag in its municipal seal. The Remington town council voted to remove the Confederate flag from its seal on July 20, American culture is exported all over the world and as a result, noticeable display of the Confederate flag is not confined to North America. Various overseas groups, movements and communities make use of it, albeit sporadically in most instances.
As in the U. These groups usually passively condone the flag's association with racism and white supremacy, while also invoking the shared Ulster-Scot heritage between some leaders of the Confederacy and Northern Irish Protestants. The car-centered subculture raggare of Sweden sometimes use the flags on their vehicles and clothing as a kitsch symbol to represent America, without political meanings, along with other American symbols such as cowboy hats, old American muscle cars and other Americana. In none of these instances is the Confederate flag necessarily a long-standing or ubiquitous symbol of the movement or group known for either now or in the past openly displaying it.
Both Southern Italian and Cork sports fans are known to display other, most often local symbols, far more widely than they have the confederate flag. For far-right groups outside of the U. On June 18, , the day after a deadly church shooting was perpetrated in Charleston, South Carolina , by white supremacist Dylann Roof , whose website contained pictures of him holding the Confederate Battle Flag, many flags were flown at half-staff , including those at the South Carolina State House.
The Confederate battle flag flying over the South Carolina Confederate Monument  near the state house was not at half-staff, as South Carolina law prohibits alteration of the flag without the consent of two-thirds of the state legislature. In addition to the Charleston killings, the governors cited the U. Supreme Court's decision in Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans , issued days earlier, in which the Court affirmed that states are not constitutionally obligated to issue Confederate specialty plates. On June 24, , Robert Bentley , governor of Alabama , ordered the removal of the Confederate flag from a memorial on the state capitol grounds.
A spokeswoman for Governor Robert Bentley told the Montgomery Advertiser on Wednesday that he did not want the flag to be a "distraction". Following the Charleston shooting, many commentators questioned the continued display of the Confederate flag on the South Carolina State House grounds. An online petition at MoveOn. At a statehouse press conference on June 22, , Governor Nikki Haley , flanked by elected officials of both parties, including U.The Confederate Flag, Mississippi: The Confederate Flag Press of The Confederate Flag. On June 23, The Confederate Flag, the South Carolina General Assembly added discussion of oscar wilde sexuality flag to its special-session agenda in a procedural vote that indicated broad bipartisan support to remove the flag from the Statehouse grounds. Flag Compare And Contrast Winslow And Captain Smith The Confederate Flag Carolina January 26,